Diana Cordova "Moving the Needle Together"

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Moving the Needle Together:
The Demographics of the Higher
Education Leadership Pipeline
Diana I. Cordova, Ph.D.
Assistant Vice President, Leadership Programs
WHEMN Conference – February 2012
1
The American Council on Education
(ACE)
• Only higher education organization that represents
presidents and chancellors of all types of U.S. accredited,
degree-granting institutions: community colleges and fouryear institutions, private and public universities, and
nonprofit and for-profit colleges.
• ACE seeks to provide leadership and a unifying voice on
key higher education issues and to influence public policy
through advocacy, research, and program initiatives.
2
ACE Leadership Programs
• Executive Leadership Group
– Institute for New Presidents (coming July 2012)
– Advancing to the Presidency
– Institute for New Chief Academic Officers
• Emerging Leaders Group
– ACE Fellows Program
– Dept. Chair Workshops (coming summer 2012)
• Inclusive Excellence Group
– Regional Forums for Mid-Level Women Administrators
– National Forums for Senior-Level Women Administrators
3
Key Questions
• Why focus now on leadership for the
future?
• What is the state of the higher education
leadership pipeline - for women, in
particular?
• How are we doing compared to other
sectors?
4
Why leadership for the future?
• Those who retire (eventually) will need to
be “replaced.”
• Higher education as an enterprise is
expanding.
• Higher education is in a high stakes
environment, facing serious challenges
with no tested solutions.
5
A Growing Higher Education Enterprise
1993
2006
3,632
4,314
Enrollment
14,305,000
18,205,474
Degrees Awarded
2,167,000
3,469,942
Number of Faculty
915,400
1,290,426
Number of Staff
771,900
2,088,661
Number of Institutions
Source: Department of Education, IPEDS
6
A High(er) Stakes Future
“…this country needs and values the talents of every
American. That is why we will provide the support necessary
for you to complete college and meet a new goal: by 2020,
America will once again have the highest proportion of
college graduates in the world.”
- President Barack Obama
7
The View from the Top
8
The American College President: 2007 Edition
• Sixth national study since 1986
• 2,148 respondents, 70% response rate.
• Most comprehensive survey on the
characteristics and career paths of college
presidents.
9
The Aging of Presidents: 1986 and 2006
100%
90%
13.9
80%
49.3
61 or older
70%
60%
44.4
51 to 60
50%
31 to 50
40%
30%
20%
42.6
41.6
10%
8.1
0%
1986
2006
10
Average Years in the Presidency: 2006
11
Women Presidents by Institution Type:
1986 to 2006
Doctorate-Granting
Master's
Baccalaureate
Associate's
Special Focus
35.0
30.0
28.8
25.0
23.2
21.5
20.0
15.0
16.6
13.8
16.1
10.0 10.0
5.0
7.9
6.6
3.8
0.0
1986
1990
1995
1998
2001
2006
12
Progress on Presidential Diversity Has Been Slow
Women and People of Color
as a Percentage of All Presidents: 1986 and 2006
1986
23%
2006
14%
10%
8%
Women
Source: ACE. 2007. The American College President: 2007 Edition.
People of color
13
Minority Presidents: 1986 and 2006
8
Total Minority
14
5
African American
1986
6
2006
1
1
American Indian
0
Asian American
1
2
Hispanic
5
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
14
Minority Presidents: 2006
White
African American
Hispanic
Other
3.9
2.6
90.6
Non-MSI
2.8
41.1
MSI
0
10
20
27.4
30
40
50
22.9
60
70
80
8.5
90
100
15
Marital Status of Presidents: 2006
100%
4
80%
3
10
Never Married
14
Never MarriedReligious
Divorced or
Separated
60%
40%
Widowed
89
63
20%
Domestic Partner
Married
0%
Men
Women
16
Family Responsibilities: 2006
100
Any children
91
90
Children 17 or younger
80
68
70
Altered career to care for
family
60
50
40
30
20
19
12
15
5
10
0
Men
Women
17
Most Recent Position: 2006
Outside Higher
Education, 13%
Chair/Faculty, 4%
President/CEO,
21%
Sr. Exec - Other,
3%
Sr. Exec
Development, 4%
Sr. Exec Student
Affairs, 4%
Sr. Exec
Finance/Admin,
8%
Other Sr. Exec
Academic Affairs,
12%
CAO/Provost,
31%
18
Long-Standing Presidents’ Time Demands:
Areas Most Likely to Occupy More Time: 2006
Fund raising
78
Accountability/assessment
72
Capital improvement
71
Technology planning
62
Strategic planning
62
Budget/financial mgmt
59
Entrepreneurship
58
Enrollment management
57
Community relations
52
Operating costs
52
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
19
Time Demands: Areas Most Likely to Occupy Less Time
Academic Issues
37.1
Crisis management
23.3
Student life/conduct
21.2
Faculty issues
15.5
Athletics
12.5
Personnel issues
12.3
Risk management/legal issues
11.7
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
20
Areas Insufficiently Prepared for First Presidency
Fund raising
23
Risk management
17
Capital improvement
15
Entrepreneurial
ventures
15
Budget
Governing board
relations
Athletics
15
12
12
21
The Contemporary Presidency
Slow progress in diversity.
Experience matters.
Position is:
• More complex and time-consuming;
• Externally focused;
• Driven by the competitive marketplace and
the need for revenue.
22
The Pathway Up
23
On the Pathway to the Presidency
• Follow-up study to The American College President:
2007 Edition.
• First-ever attempt to describe characteristics of
senior leaders other than presidents.
24
Research Questions
• What is the age profile of senior leaders?
(Will the last person out please turn off the lights …)
• Are those in position to be the next
generation of presidents more diverse than
the current group?
25
Methods and Data
• Surveyed HR directors at 4,300 regionally accredited, degreegranting institutions.
• Used CUPA-HR position taxonomy and ACPS results to
identify 35 positions “on the pathway.”
• Asked for information in HR databases.
• 850 institutions responded with info on about 9,700 positions
(20% response rate).
• Response rate varied by institution type. Data weighted to
reflect national distribution of institutions.
26
Senior Administrators are Younger than Presidents
Distribution of Presidents and Other Senior Administrators by Age
19%
29%
61 or older
49%
51 to 60
47%
52%
50 or younger
43%
34%
19%
8%
Presidents
All Senior Administrators
Chief Academic Officers
Sources: ACE. 2007. The American College President: 2007 Edition. ACE. 2008. On the
Pathway to Presidency: Characteristics of Higher Education’s Senior Leadership.
27
And more likely to be women …
Percentage of Presidents and Senior Administrators
who are Female
45%
38%
23%
Presidents
All Senior Administrators
Chief Academic Officers
Sources: ACE. 2007. The American College President: 2007 Edition. ACE. Sources: ACE. 2007. The American
College President: 2007 Edition. ACE. Forthcoming. On the Pathway to Presidency: Characteristics of Higher
Education’s Senior Leadership.
28
Senior Administrators
No More Likely to be People of Color
Percentage of Presidents and Senior Administrators
who are People of Color
14%
16%
14%
10%
Presidents
All Senior
Administrators
Chief Academic
Officers
Sources: ACE. 2007. The American College President: 2007 Edition. ACE. 2008. On the Pathway to Presidency:
Characteristics of Higher Education’s Senior Leadership.
Deans
29
Gender Diversity Among
Senior Administrators by Institutional Type
30
Racial/Ethnic Diversity Among
Senior Administrators by Institutional Type
31
CAOs’ Presidential Aspirations, by Gender
and Race/Ethnicity
25%
33%
28%
35%
34%
48%
28%
23%
24%
Intend to
seek a
presidency
Undecided
33%
30%
27%
47%
44%
47%
25%
Women
Men
White
African
American
33%
36%
Asian
American
Hispanic
Source: ACE.2009. The CAO Census: A National Profile of Chief Academic Officers.
Do not
intend to
seek a
presidency
32
Select Reasons for Not Aspiring to a Presidency,
by Gender
27
23
Don't want to live "in a fishbowl"
Want to return to academic work
and/or classroom
18
26
27
Time demands of position
Too old to be considered
Ready to retire
Nature of work is unappealing
24
13
Women
Men
26
33
31
68
65
33
Steps Taken to Prepare for Presidency:
Spoken to a Mentor?
35%
41%
36%
43%
50%
86%
65%
59%
64%
57%
No
Yes
50%
14%
Women
Men
White
African
American
Asian
American
Source: ACE.2009. The CAO Census: A National Profile of Chief Academic Officers.
Hispanic
34
Steps Taken to Prepare for Presidency:
Spoken to Search Consultants?
26%
52%
51%
61%
62%
No
Yes
93%
45%
48%
49%
39%
38%
7%
Women
Men
White
African
American
Source: ACE.2009. The CAO Census: A National Profile of Chief Academic Officers.
Asian
American
Hispanic
35
How are we doing relative to other
sectors?
• The White House Project Report:
Benchmarking Women’s Leadership
– www.thewhitehouseproject.org/documents/Report.pdf
• Motivation for the Report
– Belief that most people think “Women have made it; it’s no
longer an issue.”
– Need to document that women are not adequately represented
in top leadership positions across sectors.
– Need to motivate conversations and actions around this issue.
36
Percent of Women in Leadership
Positions by Sector
50%
40%
30%
23%
20%
22%
16% 16%
21%
18%
11%
17% 15%
21%
18%
10%
0%
Source: The White House Project analysis
37
38
Sources: Catalyst 2005, 2006 (a), (b), 2007(b); Catalyst 2008 (a), (b); Catalyst 2009 (a); Daily et al. 1999
Source: The Face of Corporate Leadership by Toni Wolfman in the New England Journal of Public Policy, Spring 2007
39
40
Source: Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB)
Why Women? The Business Case
• Catalyst Report: Fortune 500 firms with higher
percentages of women corporate officers
experienced a 35% higher return on equity and
a 34% higher return to shareholders.
• Ernst and Young Report: Diverse groups
outperform homogenous groups even if the
members of the homogenous group are more
capable.
41
For Discussion
• What are some of the major factors that
stand in the way of women’s advancement
to top leadership positions in higher
education?
• How can we overcome some of these
barriers? How can ACE and the State
Networks more effectively support, advance
and sustain women leaders?
42
Diana I. Córdova
Assistant Vice President for
Leadership Programs
[email protected]
(202) 939-9481
43
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