Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

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Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
Mr. Divett
French Rebels
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
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The Congress of Vienna restored Louis
XVIII to the French throne.
He issued the Charter of French Liberties.
This:

Created a two-house legislature

Allowed limited freedom of the press
Louis XVIII still had a lot of power.
Louis XVIII
Citizens Lead the July Revolution

Louis XVIII died in 1824.

His brother, Charles X, took over the throne.

Charles was an absolutist. In July of 1830 he:
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
Suspended the legislature

Restricted the press

Limited the right to vote
The citizens were unhappy.
Charles X
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Liberals and radicals respond with force in
Paris.
They barricaded the narrow streets.
They shot at soldiers and threw rocks and roof
tiles at them.

They took over Paris.

Charles X abdicated and fled to England.
Revolution of 1830
“Citizen King” Rules France


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With no king, radicals wanted to set up a
republic.
Moderate liberals preferred a constitutional
monarchy.
They chose Louis Philippe as king, the
revolutionary cousin of Charles X.
He was called the “citizen king” because his
power came from the people.
Louis Philippe
Louis Philippe
Louis Philippe

Louis Philippe:

Was friends with the bourgeoise

Dressed like them

Extended suffrage to wealthy citizens

Favored the middle class at the expense of the
workers
Reform Spreads
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
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“When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.” Metternich
The revolution in France triggered revolutions
across Europe.
Most were stopped.
This still shook up the rulers, and encouraged
reform.
Success: Belgium



The Congress of Vienna had united the
Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) and the
Kingdom of Holland under the Dutch king.
Belgium
Holland
French-speaking
Dutch-speaking
Catholic
Protestant
Manufacturers
Traders
Belgian citizens fought against Dutch troops.
Britain and France supported Belgium and they
became independent in 1831.
Belgian Independence
Failure: Poland



After being divided, most of Poland was given
to Russia in Congress of Vienna.
The Polish people revolted against Russian
forces and were crushed.
Many fled to Western Europe and the United
States.
Another French Revolt in 1848
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
In the 1840s people began to be unhappy
again.
Causes for unhappiness:

Corruption in Louis Philippe's government

Recession

Lack of suffrage

Conditions like 1789
1848
“February Days”

In February 1848 chaos broke out in the streets
when the government kicked the critics out of
public meetings.

Streets were blocked by the public.

Louis Philippe abdicated.

Socialist leaders created the Second Republic.
February Days
“June Days”


Upper and middle
class didn't like
the national
workshops.
In June, the
middle class
again rioted in the
streets against
the socialists.
A New Napoleon
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
By the end of 1848 the National Assembly
issued a constitution for the Second Republic.
The constitution:

Created a powerful president

A one-house legislature

Suffrage to all adult men



This was the widest suffrage in the world at the time
The people elected Louis Napoleon (nephew of
Napoleon Bonaparte)
They thought he was a common man
Napoleon III



Napoleon declared himself emperor (Napoleon
III) and ended the republic.
He used a plebiscite to win public approval to
seize power.
He enjoyed economic prosperity but eventually
got too adventurous.
Revolution Surges Through Europe
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
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Workers needed relief from the miseries of the
industrial revolution.
The Middle-class liberals wanted more political
power and more rights for men.
These grievances, as well as the 1848 revolts in
Paris, sparked a new wave of European
revolution.
Austria

Metternich censored the press.

Literature was smuggled.

Revolts broke out.

Metternich resigned and fled in disguise.


Louis Kossuth, a journalist, led Hungarian
nationalists who demanded:

An independent government

An end to serfdom

A written constitution to protect basic rights
The Austrian government agreed, though this only
lasted a moment before they destroyed the rebels.
Italy

In Italy, Nationalists wanted to set up a
constitutional government.

Italians set up independent republics.

Revolutionaries expelled the pope.

Austrian troops ended the new governments.

The French army restored the pope to power in
Rome.
German States

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Germans suffered:

A potato famine

Economic hard times
Prussian liberals forced King Frederick William
IV to agree to a constitution written by elected
officials. He dissolved the assembly within a
year.
The Frankfurt Assembly met throughout 1848
and offered the crown of Germany to Prussia's
Frederick William IV.
Revolution in German States
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