CULTURAL CONNECTIONS Population Review Population growth is a result of two factors: Natural Increase (more births than deaths) and Immigration (people moving to Canada). Some Terminology: - Demography = the study of human populations - Immigrate = to move permanently to another country other than one’s native country - Emigrate = to leave your country of origin to live permanently in another country It is important to use rates, not numbers – rates show relations to size of the population. Rates allow for easier comparison between populations in different countries of historical periods. Birth Rate = relationship between number of births and the size of the population (# of births per year for every 1000 people) Death Rate = # of deaths per year for every 1000 people) Natural Increase Rate = birth rate – death rate Net Immigration Rate = immigration rate – emigration rate Population growth or decline has a major influence on people’s lives. Too high = not enough for everyone. Too little = shortage of workers • Compounding – population growth occurs on top of growth that has already taken place Doubling Time = how long it would take for a country’s population to double Easy way: RULE OF 70 Divide 70 by the population growth rate i.e. if a country has a growth rate of 0.5% how many years would it take its population to double? 70 / 0.5 = 140 years Stages of Demography Children (under 15) Working adults (15-64) Older adults (65+) Children and older adults make up the dependency load since they need to be supported by the Working Adults 4 Stages of Population Change: 1) 2) 3) 4) high birth and death rate = stability death rate drops (better healthcare and nutrition); birth rate stays high = natural increase drop in birth rate (parents have fewer children as it is more likely child will survive to adulthood, also live in cities – don’t need child farm hands) birth rate declines close to the death rate; population levels off (Canada approaching this) POPULATION PYRAMIDS http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/NEWGEOG/Africa/Eth_py~1.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.hewett.norfolk. sch.uk/curric/NEWGEOG/Africa/Ethiopia.htm&h=314&w=416&sz=6&tbnid=XwBTtSrZvdIJ:&tbnh=92&tbnw=122&start=9&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2 522population%2Bpyramid%2522%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D http://www.healthunit.org/chsr/environ/populat/fig_pop/pyr_pop.gif This population pyramid is wide at the base, which means there are a large proportion of young people in the country. It tapers very quickly as you go up into the older age groups, and is narrow at the top. This shows that a very small proportion of people are elderly. This shape of pyramid is typical of a developing country, such as Kenya or Vietnam. http://www.scalloway.org.uk/images/poppy1.jpg This shape is typical of a developed country. It is narrow at the base, wider in the middle, and stays quite wide until the very top, as there is a sizable percentage of older people. Note that there are more old women than men. Italy and Japan have population structures that are of this shape. Questions: pg. 194 4c), 5a),b) c) Compare the 1881 pyramid with the 1956 and 2004 pyramids on page 190. What changes do you see? How would these changes affect society?