 Population
Population growth is a result of two factors: Natural
Increase (more births than deaths) and Immigration
(people moving to Canada).
Some Terminology:
- Demography = the study of human populations
- Immigrate = to move permanently to another country
other than one’s native country
- Emigrate = to leave your country of origin to live
permanently in another country
It is important to use rates, not numbers –
rates show relations to size of the population.
Rates allow for easier comparison between
populations in different countries of historical
Birth Rate = relationship between number of births
and the size of the population (# of births per year
for every 1000 people)
Death Rate = # of deaths per year for every 1000
Natural Increase Rate = birth rate – death rate
Net Immigration Rate = immigration rate –
emigration rate
Population growth or decline has a major influence
on people’s lives. Too high = not enough for
everyone. Too little = shortage of workers
Compounding – population growth occurs on
top of growth that has already taken place
Doubling Time = how long it would take for a
country’s population to double
Easy way: RULE OF 70
Divide 70 by the population growth rate
i.e. if a country has a growth rate of 0.5%
how many years would it take its population
to double?
70 / 0.5 = 140 years
Stages of Demography
Children (under 15)
Working adults (15-64)
Older adults (65+)
Children and older adults make up the
dependency load since they need to be
supported by the Working Adults
4 Stages of Population Change:
high birth and death rate = stability
death rate drops (better healthcare and
nutrition); birth rate stays high = natural
drop in birth rate (parents have fewer children
as it is more likely child will survive to
adulthood, also live in cities – don’t need child
farm hands)
birth rate declines close to the death rate;
population levels off (Canada approaching this)
This population pyramid is wide at the base, which
means there are a large proportion of young people
in the country. It tapers very quickly as you go up
into the older age groups, and is narrow at the top.
This shows that a very small proportion of people are
This shape of pyramid is typical of a developing
country, such as Kenya or Vietnam.
This shape is typical of a developed country. It is
narrow at the base, wider in the middle, and stays
quite wide until the very top, as there is a sizable
percentage of older people. Note that there are more
old women than men. Italy and Japan have
population structures that are of this shape.
pg. 194 4c), 5a),b) c)
Compare the 1881 pyramid
with the 1956 and 2004
pyramids on page 190.
What changes do you see?
How would these changes
affect society?