Chapter 11 Sectional Conflict Increases

Chapter 11
Sectional Conflict
Section 1 –
An Uneasy Balance
A. Missouri Compromise
1819 – Missouri applies for statehood
Debate over slavery/sectional fears –
Georgia congressman tells James
Talmadge (NY), who wanted to gradually
eliminate slavery if Missouri became a
 “You have kindled a fire which all the waters
of the ocean cannot put out, which seas of
blood can only extinguish.”
Would he prove to be correct?
A. Missouri Compromise
Agreement – Henry Clay led Congress
a) Missouri admitted as a slave state
b) Maine admitted as a free state
c) Slavery banned in Louisiana Territory north
of Missouri’s southern border (36°30’ N
Result – Temporary relief
 See quotes on next slide
A. Missouri Compromise
Sectional Concerns
 Sectional antagonism, Jefferson wrote, "is
hushed, indeed, for the moment. But this is
a reprieve only, not a final sentence… and
every new irritation will mark it deeper and
 John Quincy Adams agreed. The Missouri
crisis, he wrote, is only the "title page to a
great tragic volume.“
Why did Jefferson and Adams say this?
Will they be proven correct?
B. The Slavery Debate
A Tense Time
a) Southern members of House able to outlaw
talk of abolishing slavery on the floor
b) Equal numbers continue – Arkansas admitted
as slave state in 1836, Michigan as free state
in 1837
1838 – Congressmen from Maine and
Kentucky have a duel, northerner was killed
B. The Slavery Debate
Annexation of Texas
a) Slave states vs. free states
b) Result –
Texas admitted as a slave state but it could be
divided into as many as five states if it wanted
Missouri Compromise line extended westward
Between 1845 and 1848, Texas and Florida added
as slave states, Iowa and Wisconsin added as free
B. The Slavery Debate Reopens
Popular Sovereignty and Wilmot Proviso
a) Big question – What should be done with
slavery in newly acquired land from Mexico in
Mexican war?
b) Polk’s proposal – extend Missouri Compromise
line all the way to Pacific Ocean
c) Popular sovereignty – proposed by Senators
Lewis Cass (MI) and Stephen Douglas (IL) –
would allow the citizens of new territories to
vote on whether or not to allow slavery
How was this different from previous discussions
about the expansion of slavery?
B. The Slavery Debate
d) Neither proposal satisfied antislavery
What did they want?
e) Wilmot Proviso –wanted to make it a law
and ban slavery in all lands that were
added from Mexico
C. Election of 1848
Democrats – Lewis Cass
 Supported popular sovereignty and was
against Wilmot Proviso
Whigs –Mexican War hero Zachary Taylor
 People didn’t know Taylor’s views on slavery
but since he had slaves it was assumed he
would be in favor of it
C. Election of 1848
Free Soil Party –
a) Formed by antislavery Whigs and Democrats
in August 1848
b) Nominated former president Martin Van Buren
c) Platform [position] – Demanded that slavery
be banned in all territories
Result – Taylor beats Cass 163-127
 Free Soil party takes enough votes in NY (Van
Buren’s home state) to cost Cass the election
D. Gold in California
Sutter’s Fort – fort and trading post owned by
Swiss immigrant John Augustus Sutter along
the California Trail
California Trail – trail that split away from Oregon
Trail near the southernmost point of the Snake
Gold discovered in the bottom of a wooden
canal on January 24, 1848
D. Gold in California
Discovery led to a huge number of incoming
people to join the search (40,000 by May
1849 over California Trail)
Forty-niners – migrants to gold rush, named
because of the year (1849)
 Nearly 80 percent of forty-niners were
Americans, others were from Mexico, Australia,
China, Europe and South America
E. Slavery in Congress
By 1850, California had enough
people to apply for statehood
 Wanted to enter the Union as a free state –
Taylor OK but Southerners said no
Texas’ role – wanted more land,
threatened to hold up approval of
F. Clay’s Proposal
Henry Clay wanted Northern and Southern
members of the Senate to compromise on
 Clay returned to Congress after a long absence
due to illness
 “All society is formed upon the principle of
mutual concession [compromise]”
 His rival in the Whig party Daniel Webster
agreed with his ideas and so Clay presented
them to the Senate
F. Clay’s Proposal
2. The Compromise of 1850
a) Admit California as a free state
b) Abolish the slave trade, but not slavery
itself, in D.C.
c) Pay Texas $10 million to give up its
claim to part of New Mexico
F. Clay’s Proposal
d) Create New Mexico and Utah Territories –
have slavery decided by popular sovereignty
e) Pass a tougher fugitive slave law that would
force everybody to help federal officials track
runaway slaves
State and local authorities along with private citizens
were required to help
Clay urged both sides to solve their
differences and save the Union
What factors were at work here?
F. Clay’s Proposal
3. Fire-eaters –
a) Definition – southern political leaders
who were extremely pro-slavery
b) Wanted slavery to be protected by
federal law or constitutional amendment,
otherwise wanted southern states to
secede from the Union
G. Senate Debate
John C. Calhoun –
a) Leading fire-eater who attacked Clay’s
b) Said the South would be forced to choose
between abolition and secession and it was
the North’s responsibility to fix the problem
Webster gave a speech supporting Clay’s proposal but
many northerners thought that compromising on slavery
was wrong and thus were against the Compromise
G. Senate Debate
2. Change in power – President Taylor died
suddenly in July 1850, replaced by Vice
President Millard Fillmore
3. Compromise of 1850 was passed by
Congress on September 20, 1850
► Was the Compromise a permanent solution
or a temporary fix?
Chapter 11
Sectional Conflict
Section 2 –
Compromise Comes to
an End
A. The Early 1850s
Election of 1852
a) Democrats – nominated Franklin Pierce of New
b) Whigs – nominated another Mexican War hero,
Winfield Scott
c) Free Soil – Nominated John P. Hale
d) Result – Pierce won in a landslide (254-42)
e) Why did Pierce win?
f) Term – Pierce’s young son died in a train accident
on the way to D.C., Pierce was never the same
A. The Early 1850s
Fugitive Slave Act
a) What did it do? Made it a federal crime to
assist runaway slaves
b) What effect did it have?
Compromise of 1850 was in trouble long before
Pierce’s election in 1852
► Many Northerners did whatever they could to help
runaway slaves
► Further added to the divide between proslavery
supporters and abolitionists
B. Antislavery Literature
Uncle Tom’s Cabin – written by abolitionist
Harriet Beecher Stowe –
Novel about the realities of slavery from sugar
plantations to homes of slaveholders to plight of
runaway slaves
Sold 300,000 copies in nine months, over 2 million
copies in U.S. by end of 1850s
It was banned in parts of the south, where many
novels defending slavery appeared
Another event that widened the gap between north
and south
Do you think
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
an accurate
portrayal of life in
the South,
particularly for
Why or why not?
C. Kansas-Nebraska Act
Transcontinental railroad wanted from
Chicago to West Coast
 Douglas behind this one as well
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act do?
a) Repealed the Missouri Compromise
b) Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
and eventual statehood based on popular
C. Kansas-Nebraska Act
Reaction was predictable –
a) Southerners liked the possibility of
expanding slavery
b) Abolitionists were upset at the turn of
c) It was also opposed for economic
reasons. Why?
D. Bleeding Kansas
Both sides (pro- and anti-slavery) organize
to help people move to Kansas
Elections in Kansas – March 1855
a) About 5,000 pro-slavery residents of Missouri
cross the border to vote in territorial elections
How was this possible?
b) Proslavery candidates win
c) Antislavery settlers form own government,
both claim to be legitimate government of
D. Bleeding Kansas
a) Lawrence – May 1856 – Pro-slavery raiders
trashed the town that was headquarters of the
Free State Party
b) Pottawatomie Massacre – led by abolitionist
John Brown (more about him later), attack on
pro-slavery settlement, five men beaten and
killed in middle of the night
c) Bleeding Kansas – nickname given to violence
in Kansas
D. Bleeding Kansas
d) Attack on the Capitol Floor – South Carolina
Rep. Preston Brooks beat Massachusetts Sen.
Charles Sumner unconscious with a cane
e) End result of Brooks’ attack on Sumner and
the violence in Kansas – only created more
abolitionists than anything else
E. The New Republican Party
Republican Party – created in 1854 by
antislavery Whigs and Democrats along
with some Free-Soilers, took name from
old Republican Party of Jefferson
Elections of 1854 and 1856
a) 1854 Congressional Elections – Republicans
team up with American Party (anti-immigrant,
anti-Catholic Know-Nothings) to defeat
b) By 1856, antislavery Know-Nothings officially
join Republicans
Cuba refers to the Ostend Manifesto, which was a proposal to buy
Cuba from Spain and add it as a slave state
E. The New Republican
Election of 1856
a) Republicans – nominate John C.
“Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Men, Fremont
and Victory!”
b) Democrats – nominate James Buchanan
of Pennsylvania over President Pierce
Supported Kansas-Nebraska Act, Democrats
called Republicans a party of sectionalism in
E. The New Republican
c) American Party – Know-Nothings and
remaining Whigs nominate former president
Millard Fillmore
d) Result – Buchanan wins (174 electoral votes),
Fremont (114) and Fillmore (8) only carried
e) Why did Buchanan win?
E. The New Republican
Lecompton Constitution –
a) It gave Kansas voters only the right to decide
if more slaves could enter the territory, not
whether or not slavery should exist
b) Douglas speaks out against Lecompton
Cost him Douglas key support and discredited
popular sovereignty. Who was upset with him?
Chapter 11
Sectional Conflict
Section 3 –
On the Brink of War
A. Dred Scott Decision
Who was Dred Scott? Slave of army doctor
John Emerson lived in Missouri, wanted to
be free after Emerson passed away
What was his argument? He should be
free because he had previously lived with
Emerson in Wisconsin Territory and Illinois,
both free
 Missouri courts had already given slaves
freedom in similar cases
A. Dred Scott Decision
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney – one of five
southerners on the Supreme Court who
wrote the majority opinion
What was his decision?
a) That since Scott was property and not a U.S.
citizen, he had no right to sue
b) Congress did not have the right to outlaw
slavery because you couldn’t deny right to
property without due process
c) Missouri Compromise line was illegal
A. Dred Scott Decision
a) Abolitionists were outraged but some
saw it as an opportunity to take action
b) Combined with Kansas-Nebraska Act,
slavery looked like it was going to
expand into territories
B. Lincoln-Douglas
Abraham Lincoln – lawyer and former
House member who was against
slavery, ran for U.S. Senate from
Illinois as a Republican
2. Stephen Douglas – called the “Little
Giant”, was running for a third term
Douglas was popular with people in Illinois
B. Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (seven total
between August and October)
a) “A house divided against itself cannot stand” –
Lincoln at Republican State Convention 6/16/1858
b) Lincoln – willing to tolerate slavery in the South
but strongly opposed to it in territories
c) Freeport Doctrine – Douglas said that people of a
territory could still keep slavery out by refusing to
pass local laws necessary to make slave system
d) Result – Freeport Doctrine helped Douglas beat
Lincoln in a close race
First Debate Ottawa –
August 21, 1858
Second Debate Freeport –
August 27, 1858
Third Debate Jonesboro –
September 15, 1858
Fourth Debate Charleston –
September 18, 1858
Fifth Debate Galesburg –
October 7, 1858
Sixth Debate Quincy –
October 13, 1858
Seventh Debate Alton –
October 15, 1858
C. John Brown’s Raid
Attack on Harpers Ferry, Virginia (October
16, 1859)
a) Who? Abolitionist John Brown and a group of
20 that included five African Americans.
Group was funded by abolitionists from New
b) What happened? Brown’s group seizes the
federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry
C. John Brown’s Raid
c) Why? Brown hoped to revolt against
slaveholders and start a new government in
the Appalachian Mountains
d) Result – No slaves came to help and the
army eventually attacked, killing half of the
group and capturing the rest
e) Fate of those captured? Brown and six of
his followers were convicted and executed
C. John Brown’s
a) Northerners – questioned Brown’s sanity but
many also saw him as a hero
b) Southerners –
► Some saw him as a fanatic who got what he
► Secessionists thought it would lead yeoman
farmers and poor whites to support their
D. Election of 1860
Democrats – nominated Stephen Douglas
2. Southern Democrats broke away and chose
Vice President John Breckinridge
3. Republicans – nominated Abraham Lincoln,
who seemed more moderate
 Stronger abolitionists wanted William Seward
 Platform – designed to attract northern
industrialists and wage earners along with
midwestern farmers, totally ignored the South
4. Constitutional Union Party – formed by Southern
moderates, nominated John Bell
D. Election of 1860
a) Same as sectional divisions – Lincoln wins convincingly
in Electoral College but only wins 40% of popular vote
b) Lincoln – carried almost all northern and Midwest
states (180 electoral votes)
c) Douglas – claimed almost 30 percent popular vote but
only 12 electoral votes (Missouri and 3 of 7 electoral
votes from NJ)
d) Breckinridge – carried every state of Lower South
(18.1% popular vote, 72 electoral votes)
e) Bell – Won three states in Upper South (KY, VA, TN),
finished last in popular vote (12.6%) but third in
electoral votes with 39
E. Secession
Lincoln’s victory was seen in the South as a win
for abolitionists
States secede – South Carolina first on Dec. 20,
1860, six others follow by Feb. 1, 1861
Confederate States of America – formed by
delegates from six of the seven seceding states
in a convention at Montgomery, Alabama
Jefferson Davis – Mississippi planter and former
U.S. senator named Confederate president
E. Secession
Buchanan backs down – Before leaving office, he
says that states have no power to secede but
that the government can’t make them stay
against its will
6. Southern justification – used states’ rights as
basis for withdrawal but also feared that
restricting slavery in territories would keep them
as the minority in Congress
7. Northern reaction – states accepted the
Constitution as supreme law of the land when
they ratified it, can’t just withdraw if they didn’t
like what was happening
Civil War Causes
Cotton Gin
Missouri Compromise
Nullification Crisis
Manifest Destiny
Annexation of Texas
Mexican War/Cession
Wilmot Proviso
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Act
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Bleeding Kansas
Attack on the Senate
Floor (Sumner/Brooks)
Republican Party Forms
Dred Scott decision
John Brown’s Raid
Election of 1860
Secession/Formation of
the Confederacy