GWH Chapter 15B - Stamford High School

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Chapter Introduction
Section 1 The Ottoman Empire
Section 2 The Rule of the Safavids
Section 3 The Grandeur of the Moguls
Chapter Summary
Chapter Assessment
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listen to the audio again.
Key Events
As you read this chapter, look for the key
events in the history of the Muslim
empires. 
• Muslim conquerors captured vast territory
in Europe and Asia using firearms. 
• Religion played a major role in the
establishment of the Ottoman, Safavid,
and Mogul Empires. 
• Trade and the arts flourished under the
Muslim empires.
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The Impact Today
The events that occurred during this time
period still impact our lives today. 
• Muslim art and architectural forms have
endured, and examples can be found
throughout the world. 
• Since the territory once occupied by the
Ottoman and Safavid dynasties produces
one-third of the world’s oil supply, these
regions continue to prosper.
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Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to: 
• describe the gradual expansion of the
Ottoman Empire. 
• discuss the achievements of Mehmet II
and Süleyman the Magnificent. 
• discuss Ottoman rule, including the
division of people by religion and
occupation. 
• highlight Ottoman achievement in art and
architecture.
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Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:
• describe the signs of decline of the
Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Empire
Main Ideas
• Ottoman Turks used firearms to expand their
lands and appointed local rulers to administer
conquered regions. 
• The Ottomans created a strong empire with
religious tolerance and artistic achievements. 
Key Terms
• janissary 
• harem 
• pasha 
• grand vizier 
• gunpowder empire 
• ulema
• sultan 
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The Ottoman Empire
People to Identify
• Mehmet II 
• Sultan Selim I 
• Sinan 
Places to Locate
• Anatolian Peninsula 
• Sea of Marmara 
• Bosporus 
•
• Dardanelles
Makkah

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The Ottoman Empire
Preview Questions
• What were the major events in the growth of the
Ottoman Empire? 
• What role did religion play in the Ottoman
Empire?
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The Ottoman Empire
Preview of Events
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The ottoman, a stuffed footstool also called
a hassock, is named after the Ottoman
Empire. Tales of this great empire excited
the European imagination, and by the end
of the eighteenth century a large market
had formed for items of Eastern luxury–
carpets, pillows, divans, and the like.
Included was a small, backless couch the
French called an ottoman, after the empire.
The name was later applied in England to
the smaller footstool.
Rise of the Ottoman Turks
• The Ottoman dynasty began in the late
thirteenth century when Turks under their
leader Osman were given land in the
northwest corner of the Anatolian
Peninsula by the Seljuk Turks in return for
helping fight against the Mongols.
(pages 457–458)
Rise of the Ottoman Turks (cont.)
• The Ottomans expanded westward to
control the strategic Bosporus and the
Dardanelles. 
• These two straits, separated by the Sea
of Marmara, connect the Black Sea and
the Aegean Sea. 
• The Byzantine Empire had controlled the
area.
(pages 457–458)
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Rise of the Ottoman Turks (cont.)
• The Ottomans expanded into the Balkans
in the fourteenth century. 
• Ottoman rulers claimed the name of
sultan and built a strong military, first by
developing an elite guard called
janissaries, local Christians who
converted to Islam and served as foot
soldiers or administrators to the sultan.
(pages 457–458)
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Rise of the Ottoman Turks (cont.)
• With the use of the new technology of
firearms, the janissaries began to spread
Ottoman control in the Balkans. 
• During the 1390s, they had advanced
northward, defeated the Serbs (Battle of
Kosovo, 1389), and annexed Bulgaria.
(pages 457–458)
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Rise of the Ottoman Turks (cont.)
The Balkans have given to American
English the verb to balkanize. It means
“to separate or fragment.” What is the
connection between that meaning and
the Balkans?
The connection stems from the way the
area was divided into small, often
mutually hostile countries and peoples
in the early twentieth century.
(pages 457–458)
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Expansion of the Empire
• For the next three hundred years,
Ottoman rule expanded into areas of
Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe. 
• Under Mehmet II, the Ottomans began to
end the Byzantine Empire. 
• Mehmet laid siege to Constantinople in
1453, using massive cannons and forces
that vastly outnumbered the Byzantines. 
• The Byzantines fought desperately for two
months, but finally Ottoman soldiers
breached the walls and sacked the city for
three days.
(pages 458–460)
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Expansion of the Empire (cont.)
• With Constantinople (later renamed
Istanbul) under their control, the
Ottomans dominated the Balkans and
the Anatolian Peninsula. 
• From 1514 to 1517, Sultan Selim I took
control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and
Arabia, including the Muslim holy cities
of Jerusalem, Makkah, and Madinah. 
• Selim declared himself the new caliph
and Muhammad’s successor.
(pages 458–460)
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Expansion of the Empire (cont.)
• In keeping with Muslim practice, the
Ottomans administered conquered
regions through local rulers. 
• The central government appointed
officials, called pashas, who collected
taxes, kept law and order, and were
responsible to the sultan’s court.
(pages 458–460)
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Expansion of the Empire (cont.)
• The Ottomans tried to complete their
conquest of the Balkans. 
• The Hungarians stopped them at the
Danube Valley. 
• The reign of Süleyman I, beginning in
1520, led to more attacks on Europe. 
• The Ottomans seized Belgrade and
advanced as far as Vienna, where they
finally were defeated (1529). 
• They extended their power into the
western Mediterranean until Spain
defeated them at the Battle of Lepanto
in 1571.
(pages 458–460)
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Expansion of the Empire (cont.)
• Until the second half of the seventeenth
century, the Ottomans were content with
their conquests. 
• In 1683, they laid siege to Vienna. 
• They lost, were pushed out of Hungary,
and never threatened central Europe
again.
(pages 458–460)
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Expansion of the Empire (cont.)
Jerusalem is a holy city to three faiths. What
are they?
Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. For Muslims,
Jerusalem is the goal of the Prophet
Muhammad’s mystic night journey, and the site
of the Islamic sacred shrine, the Dome of the
Rock; for Christians, it is the place of Christ’s
agony and triumph; for Jews it is where the
first temple was built and is a symbol of return
to the homeland. For all three faiths Jerusalem
is a pilgrimage destination.
(pages 458–460)
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The Nature of Ottoman Rule
• The Ottoman Empire is often called a
“gunpowder empire.” 
• These empires were formed by
conquerors principally based on their
mastering the technology of firearms.
(pages 460–461)
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The Nature of Ottoman Rule (cont.)
• The sultan was the head of the Ottoman
system. 
• The hereditary position passed on to a
son. 
• The sultan was the state’s political and
military leader. 
• Sons often battled for succession, causing
conflict throughout the Ottoman Empire’s
history.
(pages 460–461)
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The Nature of Ottoman Rule (cont.)
• The sultan’s position took on the trappings
of imperial rule. 
• The empire adopted a centralized
administrative system, and the sultan
increasingly became isolated in his
palace.
(pages 460–461)
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The Nature of Ottoman Rule (cont.)
• Every few years, commissioners recruited
a special class of slaves, usually from
Christian boys. 
• This collecting was known as the
Devshirme–the “boy levy.” 
• They converted to Islam and were made
pages or put in special schools. 
• At 25, some became janissaries, others
cavalry, and others government officials.
(pages 460–461)
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The Nature of Ottoman Rule (cont.)
• The Topkapi (“iron gate”) Palace was the
center of the sultan’s power. 
• Built by Mehmet II, it had an
administrative function and was the
residence of the ruler and his family. 
• The sultan’s private domain was called
the harem (“sacred place”). 
• A sultan often had several favorite wives.
(pages 460–461)
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The Nature of Ottoman Rule (cont.)
• When a son became a sultan, his mother
became known as the queen mother. 
• Often she had great power. 
• The sultan controlled his bureaucracy
through a council that met four days a
week. 
• A chief minister–grand vizier–led the
meeting. 
• The sultan sat behind a screen and
indicated his desires to the grand vizier.
(pages 460–461)
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The Nature of Ottoman Rule (cont.)
• The empire was divided into provinces
and districts, each governed by officials
who collected taxes and supplied armies
from their areas. 
• The sultan gave land to the senior
officials.
(pages 460–461)
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The Nature of Ottoman Rule (cont.)
Imagine you have just conquered vast
amounts of territory. What do you think
are the first necessary steps toward
unifying your empire?
Possible answers: Establishing political
structure, subduing enemies, and
organizing economic life are the first
necessary steps to unifying the empire.
(pages 460–461)
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Religion in the Ottoman World
• Ottomans were Sunni Muslims. 
• Since Ottoman rulers claimed to be
caliphs, they were responsible for guiding
the flock and maintaining Islamic law. 
• The sultans gave their religious duties to
a group of religious advisers called the
ulema. 
• The ulema administered the legal system
and Muslim schools.
(pages 461–462)
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Religion in the Ottoman World (cont.)
• Islamic law and customs were applied to
all Muslims in the empire. 
• Ottoman rulers generally were tolerant of
non-Muslims. 
• Non-Muslims paid a special tax but were
free to practice their religion. 
• Most Europeans remained Christian. 
• Large numbers in present-day Bosnia
converted to Islam, however.
(pages 461–462)
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Religion in the Ottoman World (cont.)
Does religious tolerance generally
weaken or strengthen an empire or
country?
Possible answer: It strengthens an
empire or country because it wins the
good will of the people.
(pages 461–462)
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Ottoman Society
• Subjects were divided into four
occupational groups: peasants, artisans,
merchants, and pastoral peoples. 
• The state leased land to the peasants. 
• Artisans were organized into guilds that
provided financial services, social
security, and training to its members. 
• Merchants were privileged. They were
exempt from most taxes, and many
became quite wealthy. 
• Pastoral peoples were nomadic herders
with their own regulations and laws. (page 462)
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Ottoman Society (cont.)
• The Ottoman system gave more rights to
women than most Islamic countries of the
time, probably due to the Turkish view that
women were almost equal to men. 
• Women could own and inherit property,
they could not be forced to marry, and
sometimes could get divorced. 
• They often had much power in the palace,
and a few served as senior officials.
(page 462)
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Ottoman Society (cont.)
Why did the pastoral people in the
Ottoman Empire have their own laws
and regulations?
Possible answer: The reason concerned
the fact that pastoral people are
nomadic, and so the laws of the towns
and cities would not apply to them.
(page 462)
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Problems in the Ottoman Empire
• The Ottoman Empire reached its high
point under Süleyman the Magnificent,
who ruled from 1520 to 1566. 
• Problems also began during this time but
did not become visible until 1699, when
the empire began to lose territory.
(pages 462–463)
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Problems in the Ottoman Empire (cont.)
• After Süleyman’s death, sultans became
less involved in the government, and
ministers increasingly exercised more
power. 
• Senior positions were assigned to the
children of elite groups, who soon formed
a privileged group out for wealth and
power. 
• The bureaucracy lost touch with rural
areas, causing local officials to become
corrupt. 
• Taxes rose as wars depleted the imperial
treasury.
(pages 462–463)
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Problems in the Ottoman Empire (cont.)
• There was an exchange of ideas and
customs between the West and the
Ottoman Empire. 
• Cafes began to appear in the major cities. 
• To stop this trend, one sultan outlawed
drinking coffee and smoking tobacco. 
• If subjects were caught in these or other
immoral or illegal acts, they were executed
immediately.
(pages 462–463)
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Problems in the Ottoman Empire (cont.)
Are there contemporary Islamic countries
that punish people for immorality or not
following Islamic customs?
Yes, Iran, for example, has a kind of
morals police empowered to enforce
the nation’s virtue.
(pages 462–463)
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Ottoman Art
• Ottoman sultans enthusiastically
supported the arts. 
• The production of pottery, rugs, silk, other
textiles, jewelry, arms, and armor all
flourished. 
• Artists came from all over the world to
enjoy the sultan’s generous patronage.
(page 463)
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Ottoman Art (cont.)
• The greatest Ottoman artistic
accomplishment was in architecture,
especially the mosques of the sixteenth
century. 
• They were modeled on the floor plan of
the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople,
which created a prayer hall with an open
central area under one large dome.
(page 463)
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Ottoman Art (cont.)
• The greatest Ottoman architect of the
time was Sinan. 
• He built 81 mosques. 
• A dome topped each mosque, and
often four towers (minarets) framed
the building. 
• His most famous building is the
Süleimaniye Mosque in Istanbul.
(page 463)
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Ottoman Art (cont.)
• The silk industry resurfaced under the
Ottomans. 
• Factories produced silk wall hangings,
sofa covers, and court costumes. 
• Peasants made woolen and cotton rugs. 
• They boasted distinctive designs and
colors from different regions.
(page 463)
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Ottoman Art (cont.)
Sinon was a great sixteenth-century
architect. Name a famous American
architect and some of his or her buildings.
Possible answer: American architect
Frank Lloyd Wright was known for his
famous building Fallingwater (Kaufmann
House) located in Pennsylvania. Another
famous structure is the Seagrams building
in New York City.
(page 463)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match each definition in the left column with the
appropriate term in the right column.
__
B 1. an appointed official in the
Ottoman Empire who collected
taxes, maintained law and order,
and was directly responsible to
the sultan’s court
A. janissary
__
E 2. “sacred place,” the private
domain of an Ottoman sultan,
where he and his wives resided
D. sultan
B. pasha
C. gunpowder
empire
E. harem
__
A 3. a soldier in the elite guard of the Ottoman Turks
__
D 4. “holder of power,” the military and political head
of state under the Seljuk Turks and the Ottomans
__
C 5. an empire formed by outside conquerors who
unified the regions that they conquered through
their mastery of firearms
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Checking for Understanding
Evaluate how the problems in the
Ottoman Empire may have begun
during the reign of Süleyman the
Magnificent.
He executed his two most able sons
on suspicion of treason.
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Checking for Understanding
Identify the four main occupational
groups in the Ottoman Empire.
Peasants, artisans, merchants, and
pastoral peoples were the four main
occupational groups in the Ottoman
Empire.
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Critical Thinking
Drawing Inferences Describe the
organization of Ottoman government
and explain why it was effective.
The sultan controlled the government
through an imperial council. The grand
vizier led the council. The empire was
divided into provinces and districts
governed by officials, and the
bureaucracy helped in the
administration of government.
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Analyzing Visuals
Compare the room shown on page
462 of your textbook with the room
from the palace of Versailles shown on
page 443 of your textbook. How do
the two rooms reflect the power of the
rulers who had them built?
Both rooms are lavishly decorated.
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Close
Discuss which achievement of the
Ottoman Empire you consider the
most important and why.
The Rule of the Safavids
Main Ideas
• The Safavids used their faith as a unifying
force to bring Turks and Persians together. 
• The Safavid dynasty reached its height under
Shah Abbas. 
Key Terms
• shah 
• orthodoxy 
• anarchy
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The Rule of the Safavids
People to Identify
• Safavids 
• Shah Abbas 
• Shah Ismail 
• Riza-i-Abbasi 
Places to Locate
• Azerbaijan 
• Tabriz 
• Caspian Sea 
• Isfahan
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The Rule of the Safavids
Preview Questions
• What events led to the creation and growth of
the Safavid dynasty? 
• What cultural contributions were made by the
Safavid dynasty?
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The Rule of the Safavids
Preview of Events
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Once the capital of the Safavid Empire,
Isfahan is today a major city in west-central
Iran, known for its textiles, handicrafts, tiles,
rugs, and cotton fabrics. Recovery of the
city–which had declined greatly over the
centuries since its peak of beauty during
the reign of Shah Abbas–began in the
second quarter of the twentieth century.
Rise of the Safavid Dynasty
• In the sixteenth century a new dynasty
know as the Safavids took control of the
area extending from Persia into central
Asia. 
• The Safavids were Shiite Muslims. 
• Shah Ismail founded the Safavid
dynasty. 
• He was a descendant of Safi al-Din, who
had been the leader of Turkish ethnic
groups in Azerbaijan, near the Caspian
Sea, in the early fourteenth century.
(pages 468–469)
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Rise of the Safavid Dynasty (cont.)
• In 1501, Ismail seized much of Iran and
Iraq. 
• He called himself the shah (king) of a new
Persian state. 
• He sent Shiite preachers into Anatolia to
convert Turks in the Ottoman Empire. 
• Ismail also massacred Sunni Muslims
when he conquered Baghdad in 1508.
(pages 468–469)
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Rise of the Safavid Dynasty (cont.)
• Alarmed by the Safavids, the Ottoman
ruler Selim I won a major battle against
them near Tabriz. 
• Within a few years, Ismail regained
control of Tabriz.
(pages 468–469)
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Rise of the Safavid Dynasty (cont.)
• Faced with integrating different peoples
under their rule, the Safavids tried to use
the Shiite faith as a unifying force. 
• The shah claimed to be the spiritual
leader of all Islam, as did the Ottoman
sultan.
(pages 468–469)
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Rise of the Safavid Dynasty (cont.)
• The Ottomans went on the attack in the
1580s, conquering Azerbaijan and
controlling the Caspian Sea. 
• Abbas, the Safavid shah, signed a peace
treaty and lost much territory. 
• The Safavid capital moved east from
Tabriz to Isfahan.
(pages 468–469)
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Rise of the Safavid Dynasty (cont.)
Persia has long been viewed as a
mystical place in the imagination of the
West. What do you think of when you
think of Persia?
Possible answers: Aladdin, genies, flying
carpets, and harems are associated with
Persia.
(pages 468–469)
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Glory and Decline
• The Safavids reached their high point
under Shah Abbas, who ruled from 1588
to 1629. 
• He created a system similar to the
Ottoman janissaries and strengthened
his army with the latest weapons.
(pages 469–470)
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Glory and Decline (cont.)
• In the early seventeenth century, with the
help of European allies concerned about
the Ottomans, Abbas moved against the
Ottomans to regain lost territories. 
• The Safavids did not have much success,
but in 1612 a peace treaty returned
Azerbaijan to their control.
(pages 469–470)
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Glory and Decline (cont.)
• The Safavid dynasty lost its vigor after
Abbas’s death (1629). 
• His successors lacked his talent and
political skills. 
• Shiite religious power increased at court
and in society.
(pages 469–470)
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Glory and Decline (cont.)
• The pressure to conform to traditional
religious beliefs, or religious orthodoxy,
increased and curbed the empire’s earlier
intellectual freedom. 
• Persian women were now forced into
seclusion and forced to adopt the veil.
(pages 469–470)
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Glory and Decline (cont.)
• Afghan people seized the capital of
Isfahan in the early eighteenth century. 
• The Safavid rulers retreated to their
original homeland, Azerbaijan. 
• Turks seized territories and Persia sank
into a long period of political and social
anarchy (lawlessness and disorder).
(pages 469–470)
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Glory and Decline (cont.)
Why do you think many Muslim countries
require women to veil their faces?
Possible answer: The Quran stresses
modesty in dress for both men and
women.
(pages 469–470)
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Political and Social Structures
• Persia under the Safavids was a mixed
society of Turks and Persians. 
• The former were nomadic peoples; the
latter, farmers and townspeople. 
• The pyramid-shaped Safavid political
system had the shah at the top, the
bureaucracy and landed classes in the
middle, and common people below.
(pages 470–471)
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Political and Social Structures (cont.)
• Shiites eagerly supported the Safavid
rulers because they believed the founder
of the empire was a direct successor of
Muhammad. 
• Shia Islam was the state religion.
(pages 470–471)
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Political and Social Structures (cont.)
• The shahs were surprisingly available to
their subjects, even taking meals with
them. 
• Most of the shahs controlled the power of
the landed aristocracy, bringing many
lands under the Crown’s control. 
• Appointment to the bureaucracy was by
merit, not birth. 
• Abbas hired neighboring foreigners to
avoid competition between Turkish and
non-Turkish elements among his people.
(pages 470–471)
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Political and Social Structures (cont.)
• The shahs were active in trade and
manufacturing. 
• A large, affluent middle class also
participated in trade. 
• Most goods in the empire traveled by
horse or camel. 
• Rest stops were provided on roads, which
were kept fairly clear of bandits.
(pages 470–471)
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Political and Social Structures (cont.)
• The Safavid Empire was not as
prosperous as the Ottoman or the Mogul. 
• Its position with the Ottomans on the west
made trade with Europe difficult.
(pages 470–471)
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Political and Social Structures (cont.)
The political structure of ancient empires
was shaped like a pyramid. What shape
would best express the American
political structure?
(pages 470–471)
Safavid Culture
• Knowledge of science, medicine, and
mathematics under the Safavids equaled
that of other societies of the region.
(page 471)
Safavid Culture (cont.)
• Persia had an extraordinary flowering of
the arts under Shah Abbas. 
• Isfahan was a grandiose planned city with
wide spaces and a sense of order. 
• Palaces, mosques, and bazaars
surrounded a huge polo ground. 
• Craftspeople adorned the buildings with
metalwork, elaborate tiles, and delicate
glass.
(page 471)
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Safavid Culture (cont.)
• Silk weaving based on new techniques
flourished. 
• The brightly colored silks, with gold and
silver threads, portrayed birds, animals,
and flowers. 
• Above all, carpet weaving flourished,
stimulated by a large demand for carpets
in the West. 
• These wool carpets are still prized
throughout the world.
(page 471)
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Safavid Culture (cont.)
• Riza-i-Abbasi was the most famous artist
of the period. 
• He painted simple subjects such as oxen
plowing, hunters, and lovers. 
• Soft colors and flowing movement were
the dominant features of this period’s
painting.
(page 471)
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Safavid Culture (cont.)
Although Persian rugs are prized for their
beauty, they were also highly practical
items. What uses did rugs serve?
Possible answer: Rugs and carpets
were used as saddle covers, storage
bags, tomb covers, tent doorways,
spreads and blankets, and decorative
art.
(page 471)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match each definition in the left column with the
appropriate term in the right column.
__
C 1. political disorder; lawlessness
__
B 2. traditional beliefs, especially
in religion
__
A 3. king (used in Persia and Iran)
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A. shah
B. orthodoxy
C. anarchy
Checking for Understanding
Describe how the Safavids tried to
bring the various Turkish and Persian
peoples together.
The Safavids used the Shiite faith as a
unifying force.
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Checking for Understanding
Summarize how the increased
pressures of religious orthodoxy
influenced women’s lives in the late
Safavid dynasty.
Women were forced into seclusion and
required to adopt the wearing of the
veil.
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Critical Thinking
Explain What was the shah’s role in
Safavid society and government?
The shahs were actively involved in
trade and the government. They
controlled the power of the landed
aristocracy and selected people for
governmental positions.
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Analyzing Visuals
Examine the photograph of the Royal
Academy of Isfahan shown on page
471 of your textbook. Why would
mosques have included schools like
this academy?
Mosques included schools to provide
education so that people could read
the Quran.
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Close
Find examples and compare the artistic
styles of the Safavid and Ottoman
cultures. What characteristics do the
styles share? How are they different?
The Grandeur of the Moguls
Main Ideas
• The Moguls united India under a single
government with a common culture. 
• The introduction of foreigners seeking trade
opportunities in India hastened the decline of
the Mogul Empire. 
Key Terms
• zamindar 
• suttee
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The Grandeur of the Moguls
People to Identify
• Babur 
• Shah Jahan 
• Akbar 
• Aurangzeb 
Places to Locate
• Khyber Pass 
• Calcutta 
• Delhi 
• Chennai 
• Deccan Plateau 
• Agra
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The Grandeur of the Moguls
Preview Questions
• How did Mogul rulers develop the empire’s
culture? 
• What were the chief characteristics of Mogul
society?
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The Grandeur of the Moguls
Preview of Events
Click the Speaker button to
listen to the audio again.
The North Indian Nagas are a non-Hindu
culture, long noted for their independence,
courage in battle, and talent as dancers
and musicians. Until recently they lived as
slash-and-burn agriculturists in dense rain
forests. They were headhunters. In Mogul
paintings, the Naga were depicted as
ferocious hunters dressed in leaves, and
their images were used to frighten illbehaved children.
The Mogul Dynasty
• Babur founded the Mogul Empire. 
• He inherited some of Timur Lenk’s
empire. 
• As a youth, he seized Kabul in 1504. 
• Thirteen years later, his troops crossed
the Khyber Pass to India. 
• His forces usually were outnumbered, but
they had advanced weapons, including
artillery.
(pages 473–474)
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The Mogul Dynasty (cont.)
• Babur captured Delhi against an army ten
times the size of his and established his
power in North India. 
• Babur died in 1530 at the age of 47 while
continuing conquests in North India.
(pages 473–474)
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The Mogul Dynasty (cont.)
What made artillery so effective during
the wars of this period?
It helped tremendously in laying siege to
cities. People commonly would take
refuge in cities behind well-fortified walls.
(pages 473–474)
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The Reign of Akbar
• Babur’s grandson Akbar came to the
throne at 14 years of age. 
• By 1605, he had brought Mogul rule to
most of India. 
• Akbar’s military success was due to a
large extent from using heavy artillery to
overpower his foes’ stone fortresses. 
• The Moguls were good negotiators as
well.
(pages 474–475)
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The Reign of Akbar (cont.)
• Akbar’s great empire was a collection of
semi-independent states held together by
the emperor’s power. 
• Akbar is known as a humane ruler. 
• A Muslim, he tolerated other religions. 
• One of his wives was a Hindu, and he
welcomed the Christian Jesuits as
advisers at his court.
(pages 474–475)
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The Reign of Akbar (cont.)
• The upper ranks of the administration
were filled with non-native Muslims, but
lower-ranking officials generally were
Hindus. 
• He gave them plots of land for temporary
use. 
• These local officials, called zamindars,
collected taxes and were quite powerful in
their regions.
(pages 474–475)
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The Reign of Akbar (cont.)
• Akbar’s reign was progressive by the
standards of the day. 
• All peasants paid one-third of their harvest
to the state. 
• Taxes were reduced or suspended if the
weather was unfavorable to farming. 
• Trade and manufacturing flourished
because of the peace and stability of the
Akbar Era. 
• Foreign trade especially prospered.
(pages 474–475)
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The Reign of Akbar (cont.)
• Textiles, spices, and tropical foods were
exchanged for gold and silver. 
• Arabs handled much of the trade because
the Indians and Mogul rulers did not care
for sea travel.
(pages 474–475)
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The Reign of Akbar (cont.)
What is the chief contrast between the
political systems of the Muslim empires
and the American political system?
The American political system is
representative. People vote, and those
who govern do so with the consent of
the governed.
(pages 474–475)
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Decline of the Moguls
• Akbar’s son, Jahangir, succeeded him in
1605. 
• At first he continued to strengthen the
central government’s control over his
large empire. 
• His grip weakened under the influence of
one of his wives, who used her position to
enrich her family. 
• Her niece married her husband’s third
son, Shah Jahan, who became his
successor.
(page 475)
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Decline of the Moguls (cont.)
• Shah Jahan ruled from 1628 to 1658. 
• He expanded the empire through
successful campaigns in the Deccan
Plateau and against the city of
Samarkand. 
• Shah Jahan failed to deal with growing
domestic problems. 
• His wars and building projects strained
the imperial treasury, and he raised
taxes. 
• The majority of his subjects lived in
poverty.
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(page 475)
Decline of the Moguls (cont.)
• While Shah Jahan was quite ill, his two
sons struggled for power. 
• His son Aurangzeb killed his brother,
imprisoned Shah Jahan, and assumed
power. 
• Aurangzeb is one of the most
controversial rulers in Indian history.
(page 475)
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Decline of the Moguls (cont.)
• He tried to rid India of what he considered
social ills: the Hindu practice of suttee
(cremating a widow on her husband’s
funeral pyre), levying illegal taxes,
gambling, and drinking alcohol. 
• He banned building new Hindu temples
and forced Hindus to convert to Islam. 
• His policies led to domestic unrest. 
• The increasingly divided India was
vulnerable to foreign attack. 
• In 1739, the Persians sacked and burned
Delhi.
(page 475)
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Decline of the Moguls (cont.)
Which Muslim empire was best at
handling religious differences?
(page 475)
The British in India
• British trading posts were established
at Surat, Fort William (now the city of
Calcutta), and Chennai (Madras) by
1650. 
• From Chennai, British shipped cotton
goods to the East Indies, trading them
for spices.
(pages 475–476)
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The British in India (cont.)
• The French tried to suppress British trade
in India, but the British were saved by the
military genius of Sir Robert Clive, who
eventually became the chief representative
of the East India Company. 
• The East India Company was private but
empowered by the British Crown to act on
its behalf. 
• The French were beaten and restricted to
holding one fort and a handful of small
territories.
(pages 475–476)
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The British in India (cont.)
• Clive consolidated British control in
Bengal, where Fort William was located. 
• In 1757, the British under Clive’s
leadership defeated a Mogul army in the
Battle of Plassey in Bengal. 
• As part of the spoils of victory, the East
India Company received the right to
collect taxes from lands surrounding
Calcutta.
(pages 475–476)
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The British in India (cont.)
• In the late eighteenth century, the East
India Company moved inland from its
coastal strongholds. 
• This expansion made British merchants
and officials very rich, and Britain was in
India to stay.
(pages 475–476)
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The British in India (cont.)
What was the “Black Hole of Calcutta”?
It was an underground Indian prison. In
1756, a group of 146 British soldiers
were kept there overnight. Only 23
survived. The intense heat and
conditions killed the rest.
(pages 475–476)
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Society and Daily Life in Mogul India
• Because Muslim and Hindu cultures
mixed in India, ordinary life could be
complicated in India during this time, as
the treatment of women in Mogul India
shows. 
• Women had an active political role,
sometimes even fighting in wars, in Mogul
tribal society. 
• In Mogul India, aristocratic women often
received salaries, owned land, and took
part in business.
(page 477)
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Society and Daily Life in Mogul India
• Simultaneously, women lived under
the restrictions of Islamic law. 
(cont.)
• Further, suttee continued despite efforts to
eradicate it, as did the Hindu custom of
child marriage.
(page 477)
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Society and Daily Life in Mogul India
• A wealthy landed nobility and
merchant class emerged during
the Mogul era. 
(cont.)
• Many prominent Indians had trading ties
with foreigners such as the British, which
temporarily worked to India’s benefit. 
• Outside of cities, people lived in mud
huts and had few, paltry possessions.
(page 477)
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Society and Daily Life in Mogul India
(cont.)
Women received mixed messages in
Mogul society. In some ways they were
independent, and in some ways they were
quite restricted. Are there similar mixed
messages for women in American society?
Possible answer: On the one hand
women are encouraged to have careers,
but on the other hand there seems still
to be a corporate glass ceiling and
unequal pay for equal work.
(page 477)
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Mogul Culture
• The Moguls blended Persian and Indian
styles in a beautiful, new architecture. 
• The famous Taj Mahal in Agra, built by
Shah Jahan in the mid-seventeenth
century, best exemplifies this style. 
• The outside surfaces of the Taj Mahal are
decorated with cut-stone geometric
patterns, delicate black tracery, or inlays
of colored precious stones in floral
mosaics. 
• It combines monumental size, blinding
brilliance, and delicate lightness, all at
once.
(pages 477–478)
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Mogul Culture (cont.)
• Painting also flourished in the Mogul
period and combined the Persian and
Indian styles. 
• Akbar established a state workshop for
artists, who created the Mogul school of
painting called the “Akbar style.” 
• It portrayed humans in action, something
generally absent from Persian art. 
• Akbar encouraged artists to use European
artistic devices, such as Renaissance
perspective and lifelike portraits.
(pages 477–478)
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Mogul Culture (cont.)
• Because Mogul emperors were dedicated
patrons of the arts, many artists went to
India. 
• It was said that the Moguls would reward
a poet with his weight in gold.
(pages 477–478)
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Mogul Culture (cont.)
Why did Shah Jahan build the Taj Mahal?
It was built to commemorate the love he
shared with his wife.
(pages 477–478)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match each definition in the left column with the
appropriate term in the right column.
__
B 1. the Hindu custom of cremating
a widow on her husband’s
funeral pyre
A. zamindar
B. suttee
__
A 2. a local official in Mogul India who received a
plot of farmland for temporary use in return
for collecting taxes for the central government
Click the mouse button or press the
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Checking for Understanding
Describe the impact of the Moguls on
the Hindu and Muslim peoples of the
Indian subcontinent. How did the reign
of Aurangzeb weaken Mogul rule in
India?
Mogul rulers were tolerant of other
religions. Later attempts to force Hindus
to convert to Islam led to domestic
unrest.
Click the mouse button or press the
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Checking for Understanding
Summarize the problems Shah Jahan
faced during his rule. How did the rule of
Shah Jahan come to an end?
Shah Jahan had a nearly empty
treasury, and military campaigns and
building projects forced him to raise
taxes. His rule came to an end when
he was imprisoned by his son.
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Critical Thinking
Evaluate What role did the British play
in the decline of the Mogul Empire in
India?
The British defeated Mogul armies and
gained the ability to collect taxes.
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Analyzing Visuals
Examine the photograph on page 478
of your textbook of the Taj Mahal, built
as a tomb for the wife of Shah Jahan.
How does the Taj Mahal compare to
other buildings created to house the
dead, such as the pyramids of Egypt?
Which type of tomb is more impressive,
in your opinion?
Close
Which ruler would you prefer to live
under: Süleyman, Shah Abbas, or
Akbar. Explain why you would prefer
this ruler.
Chapter Summary
The following table shows the characteristics
of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mogul Empires.
Using Key Terms
Insert the key term that best completes each of the following
sentences.
zamindars
1. Mogul officials called _______________
kept a
portion of the taxes paid by peasants as their
salaries.
shah
2. The _______________
was the ruler of the Safavid
Empire.
3. The _______________
administered the sultan’s
ulema
legal system and schools for educating Muslims.
Pashas
4. _______________
collected taxes for the sultan.
5. Adherence to traditional religious beliefs, called
orthodoxy
religious _______________,
increased as the
Safavid dynasty started to decline.
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Reviewing Key Facts
Geography What effect did the
capture of Constantinople have on
Ottoman expansion?
The Ottomans dominated the Balkans
and the Anatolian Peninsula.
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Reviewing Key Facts
History What two major ethnic groups
were included in Safavid society?
The Turkish and Persian ethnic groups
were included in Safavid society.
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Reviewing Key Facts
Government Why did the shah have
his physical features engraved in
drinking cups?
He wanted people throughout the
empire to know him.
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Reviewing Key Facts
Culture What were the social evils
Aurangzeb tried to eliminate?
Aurangzeb tried to eliminate the custom
of suttee, levying of illegal taxes,
gambling, and drinking.
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Reviewing Key Facts
Economics Why was the British East
India Company empowered to act on
behalf of the British Crown? What
other countries had financial interests
in India?
The British East India Company was
empowered because it was believed
that the company would increase British
trade and expand British influence in
India. France also had financial
interests in India.
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Critical Thinking
Compare and Contrast Compare the role of
religion in Ottoman and Safavid societies.
Ottomans were Sunni Muslims who were tolerant
of non-Muslims. Ottoman sultans led the people,
but the ulema acted as the supreme religious
authority. Islamic law and customs were applied to
all Muslims in the Ottoman Empire. Women were
subject to some religious restrictions, but they
could not be forced into marriages and they could
seek divorce. The Safavids were Shiite Muslims
led by the shah, who was supposed to be a direct
descendant of Muhammad. The Shiites did not
tolerate other religions, and they butchered Sunni
Muslims whey they captured Baghdad and
destroyed the city. The Shiites isolated women
and forced them to wear veils.
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Critical Thinking
Analyzing How did women play
prominent roles in the Ottoman and
Mogul cultures?
Women gained considerable power
within the palace in Ottoman society,
and some served as senior officials or
governors. In Mogul society, women
went to war and served as political
advisors to the emperor. They took
active roles in business and literary
activities.
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Analyzing Maps and Charts
Study the chart below and answer the questions on the
following slides.
Analyzing Maps and Charts
Which sultan
ruled the
longest?
Süleyman I
ruled the
longest.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Maps and Charts
Which sultan
did not expand
the empire in
Europe?
Selim I did not
expand the
empire in
Europe.
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Analyzing Maps and Charts
Do you think
the Ottoman
army or navy
made more
conquests?
Explain your
reasoning.
Standardized Test Practice
Directions: Choose the best answer to the following
question.
How were the Ottoman and the Mogul rulers similar?
A They controlled the Indian subcontinent.
B They were principally Shiite Muslims.
C Although Muslims, they tolerated other religions.
D They invaded and then controlled the Balkans for about
a century.
Test-Taking Tip: Look at each answer choice carefully
and ask yourself, “Is this statement true for both
empires?” By eliminating answer choices you know are
incorrect, you can improve your chances of identifying
the correct answer.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Explore online information about the topics
introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to
the Glencoe World History Web site. At this site, you will find
interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites
correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When
you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this
presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web
site, manually launch your Web browser and go to
http://wh.glencoe.com
Economics Identify the ways that the economy
of Akbar’s India thrived during periods of political
stability and peace. How did Akbar’s religious
tolerance contribute to economic stability?
Sociology
Religion
Architecture
Art
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Sociology Research the roles of women and
families in the Ottoman Empire and compare them
to those roles in Europe during the same time
period. Analyze the role that religion (Christianity
and Islam) played in the attitudes toward women in
these cultures and societies.
Religion Speculate on and then research why
mosques were part of a large complex with a library,
school, hospital, and bazaar. What do these
complexes reveal about Islam as practiced by the
Ottomans.
Architecture Bring in pictures of official residences
in various countries and throughout history. These
could include the White House, Versailles, and the
Forbidden City. Compare them to the Topkapi Palace.
What do these structures convey about the cultures
and systems of government that created them?
Art Süleyman was known to be a great patron of the arts,
and many projects were undertaken during his reign.
Islamic law prohibited using human or animal figures in
artworks; however, it was believed that, if animals were
drawn on a small scale or applied in everyday items, such
as rugs and pottery, it would be harmless. As such, human
and animal figures did not survive in Islamic art, but they
tended to become highly stylized, decorative motifs.
Calligraphy also became highly decorative and stylized in
the Ottoman Empire, and it remains a sophisticated and
elegant Islamic art form.
Gunpowder Empires
Süleimaniye Mosque
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Gunpowder Empires Before the fourteenth
century, warriors like the Mongols with their cavalry
and crossbows had the advantage in battle. When
gunpowder revolutionized warfare, cannons became
the decisive weapons. Because they required skilled
technology and vast sums of money, they were only
available to large, wealthy empires. Discuss how
this impacted the development of other cultures that
might have been emerging at this time in the areas
controlled by the Ottomans.
Süleimaniye Mosque The Süleimaniye Mosque
was built between 1550 and 1557, and many
historians consider it to be the most beautiful
example of Ottoman architecture in Istanbul. The
mosque was designed by Sinan, one of the foremost
architects of the Ottoman Empire and a close friend
of Süleyman. The mosque sits atop a hill in old
Istanbul. It is supported by four massive columns,
one from Baalbek, one from Alexandria, and two
from older Byzantine palaces. 
Click the mouse button or press the
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Inside the mosque the mihrab (a prayer niche indicating
the direction of Makkah) and the mimber (pulpit form
which the Friday sermon is preached) are carved from
white marble. The four minarets, one at each corner of
the courtyard, are said to represent Süleyman's position
as the fourth Ottoman ruler of Istanbul. There are ten
balconies on the minarets, and these are said to
represent that Süleyman was the tenth sultan to reign
since the founding of the Ottoman dynasty. Adjoining the
mosque were theological schools, a medical school, a
soup kitchen and a hospice for the poor, and a Turkish
bath.
Discuss the following: “The Ottoman Empire reached
its high point under Süleyman the Magnificent . . . but
it was also Süleyman who probably started a period
of decline.”
India became the crown jewel of the British Empire
and was ruled by Britain until 1947. Ties between
the two countries remain strong; today, many people
from India and Pakistan live in Britain.
Using Library Resources
Why Learn This Skill?
You have been assigned a major research report. At the
library, you wonder: Where do I start my research? Which
reference works should I use?
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
Using Library Resources
Learning the Skill
Libraries contain many reference works. Here are brief
descriptions of important reference sources: 
Reference Books Reference books include encyclopedias,
biographical dictionaries, atlases, and almanacs. 
• An encyclopedia is a set of books containing short articles
on many subjects arranged alphabetically. 
• A biographical dictionary includes brief biographies listed
alphabetically by last names.
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Using Library Resources
Learning the Skill
• An atlas is a collection of maps and charts for locating
geographic features and places. An atlas can be general
or thematic. 
• An almanac is an annually updated reference that provides
current statistics and historical information on a wide range
of subjects.
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Using Library Resources
Learning the Skill
• Card Catalogs Every library has a card catalog (on actual
cards, computerized, or both), which lists every book in the
library. Search for books by author, subject, or title.
Computerized card catalogs can also advise you on the
book’s availability. 
• Periodical Guides A periodical guide lists topics covered
in magazines and newspapers and tells you where the
articles can be found.
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Using Library Resources
Learning the Skill
• Computer Databases Computer databases provide
collections of information organized for rapid search and
retrieval. For example, many libraries carry reference
materials on CD-ROM.
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
Using Library Resources
Practicing the Skill
Decide which source(s) described in this skill you would use
to answer each of the following questions for a report on the
Safavid dynasty of Persia.
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
Using Library Resources
Practicing the Skill
During what time period was the Safavid
dynasty in control?
An encyclopedia would have this information.
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Using Library Resources
Practicing the Skill
What present-day geographical area
constitutes the territory occupied by the
Safavids?
Both an atlas and an encyclopedia would have
maps to show this.
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Using Library Resources
Practicing the Skill
What type of leader was Shah Ismail?
A biographical dictionary or encyclopedia would
be the best place to look for this information.
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
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Using Library Resources
Practicing the Skill
What event was instrumental in moving the
capital to Isfahan?
A historical account of this time period or an
encyclopedia would contain this information.
This feature can be found on page 472 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Fortress of Gwalior in India greatly impressed Babur
Read The Conquests of Babur on page 456 of your
textbook. Then answer the questions on the following
slides.
This feature can be found on page 456 of your textbook.
Describe Babur’s “pitifully small” first army.
His first army was on foot, wearing sandals
and long frocks, and was armed with clubs.
This feature can be found on page 456 of your textbook.
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What was different about Babur’s second army,
besides its greatly increased size?
The second army was armed with artillery.
This feature can be found on page 456 of your textbook.
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Describe the effects of Babur’s words to his
troops before the last battle.
He told them it was a holy war and to fight until
death.
This feature can be found on page 456 of your textbook.
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What does it mean to be “flayed?”
It means to be skinned.
This feature can be found on page 456 of your textbook.
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Why do you think Babur ordered this dreadful
death for the enemy leader?
It was to be an example to his enemies.
This feature can be found on page 456 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Click the image on the
right to listen to an
excerpt from page 479
of your textbook. Read
the information on
page 479 of your
textbook. Then answer
the questions on the
following slides.
This feature can be found on page 479 of your textbook.
Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
What was the purpose of the elephant fights?
The purpose was to amuse the emperor.
This feature can be found on page 479 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Did the elephant riders enjoy the sport? Explain
your answer.
No, they did not enjoy the sport. Some of them
were trodden underfoot and killed on the spot.
This feature can be found on page 479 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
What other examples of animal fights can you
think of? Why do you think people across
cultures are entertained by watching such
spectacles?
Some examples include the ancient Romans,
who enjoyed fights between animals and
between animals and gladiators, and modern
bullfighting. People enjoy these sports because
of the thrill of real or implied danger and control
over animals that the sports afford spectators.
Today, many people consider these fights cruel
to the animals.
This feature can be found on page 479 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Ottoman Empire
Every few years, as need arose,
government commissioners went into
the provinces of the Ottoman Empire
to recruit a special class of slaves.
Those chosen were usually Christian
boys, because Muslims were not
allowed to enslave other Muslims.
This collecting of boys was known as
the Devshirme–literally, the “boy
levy.” (The word levy, as used here,
means the enlistment of people for
military service.)
Read the excerpt on pages 460–461
of your textbook and answer the
questions on the following slides.
This feature can be found on pages 460–461 of your textbook.
Explaining Why were Christian boys chosen to
be the special class of slaves?
Christian boys were chosen because Muslims
were not allowed to enslave other Muslims.
This feature can be found on pages 460–461 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Writing about History Muslim boys could not
be made into slaves, but Christian slaves could
be converted to Islam. What do you think about
the logic of this system? Explain your answer.
This feature can be found on pages 460–461 of your textbook.
Constantinople to Istanbul
Objectives
After viewing “Constantinople to Istanbul,” you should: 
• Understand that Istanbul has been attacked and conquered
by many different forces over 30 centuries. 
• Know the progression of this city from modest fishing village
to thriving urban center. 
• Recognize that in Istanbul the
history of many different cultures
can be viewed through surviving
art and architecture.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Click in the window above to view a preview of the World History video.
Constantinople to Istanbul
What changes did Constantine bring to
Constantinople?
Constantine introduced Christianity to
Constantinople. The city became a center of
learning, culture, and religion and a major
commercial seaport.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Constantinople to Istanbul
What are some examples of the types of trades
represented by the merchants’ guilds in 16thcentury Istanbul?
Guilds in 16th-century Istanbul represented
calligraphers, jewelers, carpenters, meat
cutters, and even thieves.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Map
Safavid Empire, c. 1700
Diagram
Ottoman and Safavid Empires
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answers.
religious, political, and
economic leader
Shah Ismail
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Space Bar to display the answers.
Shah Abbas
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Space Bar to display the answers.
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