An Emerging World Power

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An Emerging World
Power
Chapter 5
Academic
Mrs. Hauber
Section 1: Roots of Imperialism
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Definition
Historical roots
Early Expansion
 Perry
 Cushing
 Seward
Causes of Imperialism
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Economic
Natural Resources
Spread of Religion
Increased Prosperity
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Military Reasons
Spread of Democracy
National Superiority
 Manifest
Destiny
 Social Darwinism
Video on Expansion
Sea Power

Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan—wrote “The
Influence of Sea Power Upon History”
 Need
for more markets
 Need for powerful navy to support trade
 Colonies to provide raw
materials
 Naval bases
 Panama Canal

By 1900 US was 3rd ranking navy
Video on Mahan
William Seward
Purchase of Alaska
 “Seward’s Folly”
 Two main resources

Purchase of Alaska
US Influence in Latin America
Pan-American Conference in 1889
 Venezuelan Boundary Dispute
 Monroe Doctrine
 Showed a more aggressive
nature from the US

Interest in Hawaii
Links to the US
 Voting Rights
 New Tariff

The Annexation of Hawaii
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Queen Lilikoulani
John Stevens
Treaty was drawn up
In 1893, Grover Cleveland withdrew treaty and
restored “Queen Lil” to the throne.
In 1898, US finally annexed Hawaii under
McKinley
Annexing Hawaii
Videoclip on US’s expansion
Section 2: The Spanish-American War

The Spanish-American War marked the rise
of the United States as a global military
power.
Revolt in Cuba

US was always interested in Cuba
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Sugar plantations
Investments in railroads
Cuba was a colony of Spain
Cuban rebels fought for independence from
Spain
Jose Marti
The Cuban Revolt
Spain’s Response

Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler—ruthless
General sent by Spain to put down revolt.
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Concentration camps
Torture
Starvation and Disease
The Yellow Press
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Type of journalism that told
scandalous stories to sell papers.
Joseph Pulitzer—headed “New York World”
Magazine and printed sensational stories of
Spanish atrocities.

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Invented the “Yellow Kid”—first comic strip in
America
William Randolph Hearst—headed the “New
York Journal”
Other events that led to US
Involvement
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Dupuy DeLome—Spanish ambassador in
Cuba that wrote a letter which insulted our
President.
Letter was published in US by the Yellow
Press
Sinking of the Maine—US Battleship that
exploded outside of the Cuba. 260 died. US
blamed Spain.
Sinking of the Maine
US Goes to War

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McKinley did not want war; but Americans
demanded it.
April 11, 1898 US declares War
Defeat of the Spanish Fleet
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George Dewey—
ordered by TR to attack
Spanish Fleet at the
Philippines
Dewey had a great
victory—won within 7
hours!
The Rough Riders
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A group of cowboys,
sheriffs, and
desperados from the
west led by TR
They defeated the
Spanish at San Juan
Hill in Cuba
Cheering Americans
celebrated their victory
all over the US.
“Splendid Little War”

Nickname given to the Spanish American
War by John Hay
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Lasted only 4 months
Only 385 battle deaths
Acquired an empire
Marked a big change in how the US related to the
world
US Acquisitions
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Treaty of Paris
Puerto Rico
Guam—to be used as a refueling station in
the middle of the Pacific Ocean
Philippines
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All 7000 islands
Paid 20 million to Spain for land
Anti-Imperialists
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Those who were against the acquisition of
new territories
Reasons:
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Undermines democracy
Threatens American culture
Invites perpetual war
Hypocritical
Famous anti-imperialists included: Samuel
Gompers, Andrew Carnegie, and William
Jennings Bryan
Section 3: The US and East Asia
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Filipinos wanted independence; they went from
being ruled by Spain to being ruled by the US.
Emilio Aguinaldo—Filipino that led revolt against
Americans
US used brutal methods to put the Filipinos down
War lasted three years
In 1901 Howard Taft became governor of the
Philippines
Trade With China

Spheres of Influence—
Land was leased to
spec
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Open Door Policy-Ever nation would have
equal commercial
treatment throughout
China.
Boxer Rebellion
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Boxers—Chinese rebels that rose up against
foreign influence.
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Believed their hands were magic
Into martial arts
Outraged, many of the Great Powers wanted
to divide China up and acquire it.
US preserved China’s independence by
urging the Great Powers to resume Open
Door Policy
Tensions Rise Between the US and Japan

Russo-Japanese War
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Asian-American Prejudice
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Teddy Roosevelt intervened and made a treaty
Gentleman’s Agreement—ended segregation and
Japan would limit its immigration
Great White Fleet—16 US White Battleships
went on a tour around the US.
Section 4: The US and Latin
America
• US Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba
• “Big Stick” Diplomacy
– Building of the Panama Canal
– Roosevelt Corollary
• Wilson Pursues a Moral Diplomacy
– US and Mexico
Puerto Rico
• Foraker Act—authorized the US to obtain
control and appoint a governor.
– Puerto Ricans were not given full citizenship
rights in the US
– The US government could tax Puerto Rican
goods sold in the US
Cuban Protectorate
• Teller Amendment—gave Cuba
independence
• Platt Amendment—gave the US the right
to intervene in Cuba
• Protectorate—protection and partial
control of another country
Teddy Roosevelt’s “Big Stick”
Diplomacy
• Depended on a strong military
• “Speak softly and carry a big stick”
Panama Canal
•
•
•
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French first tried but failed
Columbian revolt; Panamanians won
US bought Panama route for $40 million
Hardships
– Rock
– Yellow fever
Roosevelt Corollary
• Updated the Monroe Doctrine
• The US would use police power to keep
European influence out
• Latin America disagreed that they needed
this protection
Dollar Diplomacy
• William Howard Taft’s Foreign Policy
• Meant to increase American investments
in Central and Latin America.
Moral Diplomacy
• Woodrow Wilson’s policy
• Meant the US would not gain any more
territory and would work to promote
human rights, national integrity, and
opportunity
• Exceptions:
– Haiti
– Mexico
Wilson Sends troops to Mexico
• Revolution
– Porfirio Diaz—Mexican dictator that was
overthrown
• Wilson wanted Carranza in power
• Pancho Villa—Mexican bandit seized
control and killed 18 Americans in a fire in
new Mexico
• Escaped and was never captured
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