Let’s Review Nationalism>>> Nationalism = feeling of belonging and loyalty to a nation. Nationalism was a powerful force that could: Create a nation from separate countries Break a country up into many nations. Let’s Review Nationalism>>> Nationalism can be a cause of war (ex. WWI and WWII) Nationalism can take many different forms. The Italian States Unite, 1859-1870 Barriers to Italian Nationalism After Congress of Vienna, Italy was made up of 9 different states: Piedmont-Sardinia (the largest) Venetia and Lombardy The Papal States Other states ruled by foreign monarchs Barriers to Italian Nationalism Geography - mountains split Italy E/W; the Po river split N/S Barriers to Italian Nationalism Illiteracy The Pope Lack of consensus (agreement) in Italy Lack of European support Factors That Led to Italian Unification Geography • Italy is isolated • Alps to the North • Surrounded by oceans. • Isolation lets Italy develop its own culture. Factors That Led to Italian Unification History • Italians are proud of their heritage • Napoleon’s conquest of Italian states Efforts of 3 Men: Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour Giuseppe Mazzini-“Prophet of Italian Unification” A member of the Carbonari. Formed Young Italy Tried revolution but failed. Count Camillo di Cavour, “Architect of Italian Unification” “Architect” (planner) of Piedmont-Sardinia’s revolt against Austria. Encouraged other Italian states to revolt. Giuseppe Garibaldi, “The Sword of Italian Unification” Invaded Sicily, urged them to join Piedmont-Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel. “Red Shirts” Gave all conquered lands to Victor Emmanuel. How Italy was United 1861: Victor Emmanuel II crowned King of Italy 1866: Austro-Prussian WarVenetia added 1870-71: Franco-Prussian WarRome added Problems Faced by a United Italy North v. South Italy v. Roman Catholic Church Unhappy with Gov’t Structure No universal suffrage Italy lacked industrial development, agriculture, and natural resources. Flash Forward….to WWII and Fascism How Did Nationalism: Unite people into nation-states? Topple empires composed of many ethnic minorities? Contribute to the outbreak of wars in the 1800s? Balkans: Region in SE Europe. Had Croats, Albanians, Serbs, Greeks, and Bulgarians. The “Powder Keg” of Europe Austria: Central Europe Empire . Ruled by Hapsburgs. Torn apart by Nationalism. Prussia: Became Germany we know today. Bismarck was prime minister. Franco-Prussian War: War between France and Prussia. Prussia (Germany) won. Helped unify Germany.