prehistory Ag Rev civilization

Foundations of Western
What is History?
An effort to reconstruct the past
Based primarily on written evidence
All evidence important
Science or art
Interpret fragmentary evidence
Different types of History
Historical Perspective
Tools of Historians
Primary Sources
Must assess value and limitation
Historical references and myths and
Heinrich Schliemann discovered
remains of Homers Troy.
Time and Place
All events take place in Historical Context
When and where have tremendous effect
upon event
Timelines are visual representation of
Essential for cause and effect
Maps are geographical representations
Western Civilization
Society and culture that originated in
Began in ancient Near East
Judea-Christian value system
Heavily influenced by Greco-Roman
Only began to dominate large areas of world in
last 500 years
Archaeologists - study physical
remains- artifacts, bones , etc.
Anthropologists - study humans
radiocarbon and thermolum…used
in dating
Neanderthals- Buried their dead
had clothing
100,000 to 30,000 BC
found in Europe and Mid East
Sapiens - modern humans
200,000 to ?
Began in Africa spread out to rest of
Agricultural Revolution
and Beginning of
Paleolithic age
From 1st toolmakers to 10,000 bc
Use of fire, crude stone tools
Spoken languages, Cave art,
primitive religions - belief in
Nomadic hunter-gatherers
Neolithic era - new stone age
10,000 bc to the advent of
metal working about 4000 bc
planting of crops,
domestication of animals
refined stone tools better
technology.- microliths
Beginning of villages permanent settlements
food becomes abundant
job specialization
population growth
development of calendars
increased interaction of people
Agricultural revolution
Change from paleolithic to
neolithic called Agricultural
Necessary for the development of
Civilization develops with certain
similarities in 4 or 5 places.
Civilization Cities - larger than villages
well organized governments
complex religions
writing- records-literature
monumental architecture
public works
social classes
4 civilizations developed along
Mesopotamia - Tigris- Euphrates
• modern Iraq
Egypt - Nile river
Harappan - Indus river - modern
Huang He - Yellow river - china
Mesoamerica - Central America
no river
Civilizations spread through Cultural
Ancient Mesopotania
Fertile Crescent
Between Persian Gulf and Mediterranean
Called Cradle of Civilization
Sumer 3500 – 2000 bc
Located in southern Mesopotamia
Uruk, Ur , and Eridu were major cities
Epic of Gilgamesh – first known literature
Contains Flood story and similarities to the story of Moses
First to use Wheel
Babylonian 2300 to 2000 bc
Two eras – 1st Babylon under Hammurabi
Known for written law code
Precursor to Hebrew biblical law
Known for work in astronomy and Math – 60 base
number system
Assyrians 800 to 618
Conquered larger Empire
Organized Army very well
Extensive library at Nineveh