The Renaissance Period (England 1485-1660) The Renaissance Rediscovering Ancient Greece and Rome Renaissance / “rebirth” Refers to the renewal of curiosity and creativity. _________________________________________ People’s values _________________________________________ Beliefs _________________________________________ Behavior _________________________________________ The Renaissance Rediscovering Ancient Greece and Rome Renewal of Human Spirit “Renaissance person” Well rounded interests: Athletics ___________ Literature __________ Music ___________ Inventor ___________ Science ___________ Languages, ___________etc. The Church is still rich and powerful. __________________________________ It All Began in Italy: A Flourish of Genius The Roman Catholic Church was responsible for ______________________ financing many intellectual and artistic endeavors. A few Italian geniuses: Boccaccio/Author of The Decameron ___________________________________ DaVinci/The perfect “Renaissance Man” ___________________________________ Galileo/Scientist ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Michelangelo/Artist Columbus/An explorer ___________________________________ Humanism: Questions About the Good Life Humanism was an artistic/intellectual movement which: _________ Used the classics combined with traditional Christian thought – _________________________________________ tried to harmonize Bible with classics i.e. Greek ________. and Latin. Taught people how to live and rule by answering the question “how do we achieve happiness”; which is through ____________ a life of virtue. Two Friends – Two Humanists Two prominent humanists are: Desiderius Erasmus (1466?-1536) ____________________________ Dutch Monk---loved to travel---wrote in Latin Belonged to all of Europe---because of travels On a trip to England Taught Greek at Cambridge Met and became friends with a young lawyer… Sir Thomas More (1477?-1535) _________________________________ wrote poems, pamphlets He __________________________________ __________________________________ However, Utopia had the greatest impact. The New Technology: A Flood of Print Printing press was created in about 1455 by Johann The _____________ Gutenberg, and transformed the way information was exchanged. The first book printed… Latin Bible The ______________________ Helped spread knowledge Made books more available to more people (REVOLUTIONIZED THE WORLD) William Caxton ______________ Created the English Printing Press (set up) in 1476 The Reformation: Breaking with the Church A common feature common to all Reformers was ___________________________________________ The rejection of authority of the Pope and the Italian churchman. _________ Martin Luther – 1517 – pined his thesis In Germany ,__________________________________ statements to the door of the church, which stated that the New Christianity states: People should share have personal understanding of the _______________________________________________ Bible rather than depend on the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. This action against the Church is a historic event. The Reformation: Breaking with the Church continued … There were three circumstances that led to England’s break with the Church. ____________________________ Financial burdens. ____________________________ Patriotism. National Identity. ____________________________ King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir King Henry VIII wanted to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon because: She was unable to give King Henry a son. _________________________ He wanted to marry Ann Boleyn. _________________________ King Henry VIII wanted to break with the Catholic Church ____________________________ because he wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragaon. ___________________________________________ King Henry VIII executed Sir Thomas More because More did not recognize King Henry VIII as ___________________________________________ head of the church. More believed that church and state should be separate. King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir continued… There were five groups dissatisfied with the Church of England: ___________________________________________ Puritans – remember this one. ___________________________________________ Presbyterians Baptists ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Non conformist ___________________________________________ Dissidents These groups were dissatisfied with the Church of England because: These groups felt that it was a copy of the Catholic ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________. Church. King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir continued… The five things these dissatisfied groups wanted to get rid of were: _______________________________________________ Bishops Prayer books _______________________________________________ Priest’s vestments _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Church bells Stain glass windows _______________________________________________ King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir… King Henry VIII Wives were: Katherine of Aragon (annulled) ______________________________ Ann Boleyn (beheaded) _______________________________ Jane Seymour (died) ________________________________ Anne of Cleves (divorced) ________________________________ Catherine Howard (beheaded) _______________________________ Catherine Parr (survived) _______________________________ King Henry VIII : Renaissance Man and Executioner King Henry’s father started the Royal Navy, however: ________________ Under King Henry VIII it became a powerful force. Put _______________________________________________ stop to foreign invasions, allowed England to spread _______________________________________________ power, language, literature all over world. (beginnings _______________________________________________ of England as World Power) _______________. King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir King Henry VIII is considered a Renaissance Man because: ___________________________________ wrote poetry, music, literature in youth very athletic, handsome ___________________________________ ladies man, good dancer, etc. ___________________________________ Henry VIII: Renaissance Man and Executioner List Henry VIIIs wives, their fates and children (if any) he had with each. READY, SET, GO ……………. Katherine of Aragon Wife 1 Katherine of Aragon continued … Very Catholic! They were very happy for awhile. Gave birth to daughter: Mary. Doesn’t give him the son he wants, eyes move elsewhere to Anne Boleyn. Annulment (divorce) – sends her back to Spain. Anne Boleyn Wife 2 Anne Boleyn continued … Henry created the Church of English in 1531 for her. Henry became attracted to her about 1525 – she was one of Katherine of Aragon’s ladies in waiting. Henry sent Cardinal Wolsey to the Pope to plead his case for a divorce. Wolsey was later dismissed as Lord Chancellor. Henry secretly married Anne – 1533. Anne Boleyn continued … Parliament declared the marriage to Katherine invalid Careful…..if marriage is invalid… What happens to Mary???? She is considered illegitimate. Anne gives birth to Elizabeth – Sept. 1533 Jane Seymour Wife 3 Jane Seymour Quiet, mousey and frail. One of Anne Boleyn’s ladies in waiting Seemed to always be frightened. VERY different from Katherine and Anne. Married Henry day after Boleyn’s execution. Already carrying Henry’s only legitimate son. Edward (1547-1553) Childhood fever causes his death. Was Henry’s favorite…she gave him a son. Anne of Cleves Wife 4 Anne of Cleves Wife 4 1540---Henry marries her, sight unseen. Alliance with Germany. Had only seen portraits of Anne (in person, didn’t like what he saw– called her a “Flander’s mare”.) She saw what was coming (SMART). Testified-the marriage was never consummated. Probably most fortunate of all Henry’s wives. Received many gifts from Henry (SET for LIFE). Catherine Howard Wife 5 Catherine Howard Born between 1520 and 1525…no record Cousin of Anne Boleyn (poor side of family) Wild child -- not supervised like most young children Affair with music teacher Affair with estate manager One of Anne of Cleve’s ladies in waiting Catherine Howard continued … Rumors she was carrying Henry’s son before he annulled marriage to Anne of Cleves Probably started by her family It worked…they were married a few weeks later (16 days after being freed from Anne) Henry showered her with jewels and clothes Henry called her “his rose without a thorn” Catherine vowed all his wishes would be met • BUT…. Catherine Howard continued … She found her marriage bed…unappealing By this time, Henry was… Nearly 50 (she was approximately 19) Weighed about 300 lbs. Sick Had a leg ulcer Early in 1541..she had a romance with Thomas Culpepper. Catherine Parr Wife 6 Catherine Parr continued … 1512-1548 Widowed twice In a relationship with Thomas Seymour (Jane’s brother, actually married him after death of Henry) She caught Henry’s eye-he proposed Married in July 1543 She was friends with his children Even brought Henry and his daughters together Through and Act of Parliament-they were put back in the line of succession The Boy King and Bloody Mary The Boy King and Bloody Mary continued … King Henry VIII only legitimate male heir was Edward VI __________________. Mary I (Tudor) (daughter of Katherine of Aragon) Mary I (Mary Tudor) continued … Determined to have a Catholic heir. Her uncle was the King of Spain Married the King of Spain’s son…Phillip 1st cousin. Strong-willed, determined to avenge the wrongs done to her mother (Katherine of Aragon). Converted England back to Roman Catholic, burned 300 Protestants at the stake, known as BLOODY MARY. Overthrown by subjects but died before being ousted. Elizabeth I: The Virgin Queen (daughter of Anne Boleyn) Elizabeth I (Elizabeth Tudor) continued … Considered one of the most brilliant & successful monarchs in history Church important to her. Reestablished Church of England, excommunicated from Roman Catholic Church. Never married (knew strength in independence and ability to play one suitor against another). Taxes (Catholic families being taxed more – smiling – raiders in Catholic church really her own men, kept her 10% from Church - $$$ to her military (Navy). Elizabeth I: The Virgin Queen continued … Survived many plots against her, many from cousin, Mary Queen of Scots; endured 20 years and then had Mary beheaded. The Spanish Armada Sinks: A Turning Point in History Because Queen Elizabeth had Mary Queen of Scots beheaded, King Phillip of Spain (widower of Mary Tudor) used the beheading of Mary Stuart as excuse to invade England. Spanish Armada (130 ships; 30,000 men) – smaller, faster, more maneuverable English ships DEFEATED Armada. Half Spanish fleet destroyed by English and weather (5,000 men drowned). England lost 100 men and NO ships! Defeat of Spanish Armada = turning point in history -- Established England as WORLD POWER. A Flood of Literature Queen Elizabeth became a source of INSPIRATION for the English people. She established a religious & national identity. She established a sense of stability for the Country and for the Church. English writers started writing as never before. William Shakespeare Christopher Marlow Edmund Spencer…. All wrote about her. Composer and Musician Robert Johnson Decline of the Renaissance: A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman James I (James Stuart – James VI of Scotland) replaced Queen Elizabeth in 1603. Decline of the Renaissance: A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman James I was the son of Mary Queen of Scots’. The group which disliked King James I the most was the puritanical merchants. (Puritans) King James lacked Elizabeth’s ability to resolve or postpone conflicts, especially religious and economic issues. Difficult reign. James I tried to endear himself to his subjects by: Writing books in favor of divine right of monarchy __________________________________________. Patronizing Shakespeare’s “King’s Men” and Jonson. __________________________________________ A new translation of Bible: King James Version. __________________________________________ Began an anti-tobacco policy. ___________________________________________ Decline of the Renaissance: A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman Three reasons why James Is subjects did not like him, where: ___________________________ He was a spendthrift. _____________________________________________ He was considered “thick-tongued” and “google eyed”. He was a foreigner (Scotland not England.) _____________________________________________ The Glass of Fashion Love Green = _______ Sadness Pansy = _______ Flattery Snake = _______ Chastity and purity Black and White = ___________________ Patience in adversity White and Tawny = __________________ The Glass of Fashion continued… When a person was referred to as having a “peascod” one had a fat belly. or “goose belly” it meant ____________________. A man with a “peascod” or “goose belly” was considered wealthy. ______________________. Jewish Life in England The most famous Jewish character in Renaissance literature was ______________. Shylock The two most unflattering characteristics of this famous Jewish character were: He had no mercy. ______________________ He was a moneylender. ______________________ King Edward I banished the Jews from England in ____________ 1290 and __________________ Oliver Cromwell allowed the Jews to return in the 17th century? Jewish Life in England continued … Three Examples of persecution suffered by the Jews were: Could not own land. __________________ __________________ Were segregated – Ghettos. Were charged extra taxes. __________________ Quiz The Renaissance Quiz - The Renaissance 1. Why are historical periods so inexact, and why are they generally unknown as periods or eras to the people who live during them? a. They are too complex to be understood by most people. b. They are created later by historians to describe general trends rather than precise beginnings and ends. c. They come and go with such suddenness that people usually cannot distinguish what “historical period” they live in. d. They are completely artificial constructs and have no basis in documented reality. Quiz - The Renaissance continued 2. Which of the following statements best characterizes the intellectual environment of the Renaissance? a. Most people could not read, in part because they could not gain access to books. b. Most Europeans were highly sensitive to the achievements of people from other cultures, particularly people of the Orient. As people became interested in the writings of ancient c. Greece and Rome, they became more inquisitive and creative. d. Through their superior knowledge, scholars established power over the majority of the people. Quiz - The Renaissance continued 3. Which of the following statements best describes the intellectual movement known as humanism? a. Humanism, which combined the wisdom of the classics with that of the Bible, emphasized the ideals of wisdom and virtue. b. Humanism taught that people should use knowledge to accumulate wealth and achieve fame. c. Humanism accepted the teachings of the classics but rejected those of the Bible. d. Humanism could not tolerate contradictory texts and thus could not refer to many ancient books. Quiz - The Renaissance continued 4. Why did the invention of printing with movable type have a significant impact? a. Printed documents were more beautiful than handwritten ones. The wide availability of reading material allowed ideas to spread b. quickly. c. Books became more expensive and therefore were more valued. d. The ability to print with movable type gave Germany an edge over other countries. Quiz - The Renaissance continued 5. How did the monk Martin Luther contribute to the beginning of the Reformation? a. He renewed people’s devotion to studying and following the words of the pope. b. He taught that other religions were as valid as Christianity. c. He developed a personal form of Christianity which was not based on interpretation. d. He ridiculed ancient habits and traditions, such as superciliousness. Quiz - The Renaissance continued 6. Why were so many people in England dissatisfied with the Church of England in the mid-1500s? a They felt that the Church was insufficiently reformed and was merely a copy of Catholicism. b. They felt that the pope was too remote, and they wanted him to have more of a presence in England. c. They were beginning to reject the idea of leading a religious life. d. They disagreed with the notion that religion was a private matter between an individual and God. Quiz - The Renaissance continued 7. In what way could King Henry VIII of England be considered a “Renaissance man”? a. He went to extremes to ensure that he had a male heir. b. He ended foreign invasions of England by creating the Royal Navy. c. He was arrogant and ruthless, and he was unfaithful to his wives. He was literary, musical, athletic, and d.scholarly. Quiz - The Renaissance continued 8. England’s independence from the Catholic countries of the Mediterranean was ensured by a. Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press. b. the English Royal Navy’s defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. c. the readmission of Jews to England in 1655. d. Queen Elizabeth I’s execution of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. Quiz - The Renaissance continued 9. The end of the English Renaissance was characterized by a. the increased growth of moral and religious values. b. the pillaging of resources from the Americas. c. the rise of humanism as a way of thought and study. increasing interest in secular, rather than religious, values. d. Quiz - The Renaissance continued 10. The Catholic Church was very powerful in fourteenth-century Italy—in a way that most people would find unacceptable today. Why would most modern people in the United States object to such power? a. The Church would help artists whose work was not always in the public interest. b. The Church would discourage classical learning and thus suppress scholarship. The Church’s political power would interfere with United c. States citizens’ constitutional right to freedom of religion. d. The Church’s values would be out of date and incompatible with modern lifestyles.