Gettysburg Day 3 July 3, 1863 Objectives • Learn why did Lee need a third day of battle at Gettysburg. • Learn why Lee had to change his original plans for July 3. • What was the end result of the Gettysburg Campaign. Lee’s Plan Lee planned to attack both ends of the Union line simultaneously. Richard Ewell led his men at the northern end. They would be repulsed with the help of daring cavalry charges under George Armstrong Custer. Longstreet did not launch his attack knowing what had happened the day before. A Change of Plans Lee decided that an all out charge on the Union center could break through the lines, then turn either direction and attack that portion of the Yankees. Attack Union Center The center of the Union line had a low stone wall to offer protection. Near was a clump of trees that served as a target. Confederate Forces Longstreet was placed in command of the troops in the field. Estimates are from 12,000 to 15,000 Confederate soldiers in the three divisions. Isaac Trimble Isaac Trimble, a builder of railroads in his pre-war days, commander one division. J. Johnston Pettigrew A scholar from North Carolina, Pettigrew, whose men were the first to go into Gettysburg on Jul1, was to lead a second division of troops. George E. Pickett Pickett, who graduated last in his class at west Point, commanded the division who would bear the brunt of the attack. Union Forces Opposing the Confederates was the Second Corps, commander by Winfield Scott Hancock. Prior to the outbreak of the war he had been stationed in California where he became close friends with Lewis Armistead. Pre-war Friends Winfield Scott Hancock Lewis Armistead Artillery Bombardment At 1:00 pm, the chief of Confederate artillery, Edward Porter Alexander began a two hour barrage against the Union defenses. Assault Begins At 3:00 pm, the Confederates started their one mile march across open ground strait at the Union lines. Union artillery opened fire and when the troops came into range, rifles took aim. “The Angle” They focused the attack on the clump of trees and a sharp turn in the wall known as the angle. Armistead, leading the way was able to gain the wall. Webb’s Defense General Alexander Webb’s Pennsylvanians put up a stubborn defense and were able to eventually capture or kill every southern soldier who crossed the wall. “It is all my fault!” The assault had failed. As the demoralized troops returned, General Lee went out to meet his men and claimed “It is all my fault!” July 4 The Confederate troops began their retreat back to Virginia. Casualties The Army of Northern Virginia lost 28,000 men. The Army of the Potomac was 23,000. One civilian, Jenny Wade, was killed by a stray bullet. Lincoln’s Reaction Although please with the victory, Lincoln was disappointed that Meade did not pursue Lee and destroy Lee’s army. End Result Gettysburg was the largest land battle fought in North America in terms of total numbers involved and casualties. It was the high tide if the Confederacy. The South would never invade the North again. Lincoln had discovered the formula for winning the war.