Pearl Harbor A CHRONICLE OF JAPANESE AGGRESSION AND FAILURE Japan and Aggression Japan continuing to acquire territories in the Pacific. Indochina 1940 Japan’s “offer” 1940 America insults Japan: 1941 Why? “Japan could not hope to win an all out war against America and Britain” Admiral Yamamoto (head of Japanese Military” Deficits per Japanese estimates: Steel production capabilities: 20:1 Oil production capabilities: 100:1 Coal production: 20:1 Aircraft production (prewar) 5:1 Shipping: 3:1 Overall: 10:1 General Iwakuro Did FDR know? From Chief of Staff: George Marshall “the Oahu fortress complex (Pearl Harbor) is the strongest in the world, a seaborne attack is out of the question”. Part of the surprise was how outrageously ambitious the plan was. Quick stats First planes hit: 7:55 AM All but 29 Japanese planes returned ½ of America’s military fleet destroyed 8 battleships destroyed 3 cruisers 2323 servicemen killed Yet a total failure Ships were quickly raised and repaired The American carriers the key—were out oat the time and remained safe. Submarine pens and oil storage tanks unharmed “limited success was a woefully small military return for the political risk of attacking the United States before a declaration of war” Paul Johnson. The result? America rallied and mobilized as quickly and as dominantly as any nation in human history. Consider the numbers… Total growth: By the end of the first year of the war…the US was now production as much as all the enemies and allies put together. By 1944 they had doubled their lead in that stat. Tank growth: 1940: 24,000—1942: 58,000 Numbers Soliders Enrolled: 11,260,000 troops 670,000 marines 4,200,000 sailors An increase from an over at just over 2,000,000 in 1941! Production US factories built by wars end 298,000 planes 102,000 tanks 88,000 ships Growth at a miraculous pace USS Yorktown 3 month job to repair, after Pearl Harbor—that was moved up slightly…48 hours. Pentagon 7.5 year building plan—shaved to a year Ship building 1940 US building a ship in 196 days By 1942: 10.3 hours 52% of all ships produced in factories that were not even there before Pearl Harbor!!!! Japanese perspective… Hirohito: “Why is it that it took the Americans only a few days to build a complete airbase and the Japanese more than 40 days?” Admiral Nagano: “I am very sorry” Conclusion Pearl Harbor created a surge of nationalism that has not been equaled in human history. That nationalism led to a growth of industry and productive capacity that still baffles economists and smashed the depression literally overnight.