Aftershock - Charleston School District

Beyond the Civil War
The South faced the challenge of building a
society not based on slavery.
RECONSTRUCTION-The process the federal government used to
readmit the Confederate States to the Union
• The Civil War had ended.
Slavery and secession were
no more. Now what?
• How does the Union
integrate the South back
into American society?
• How do 4 million newly
freed African American
slaves integrate themselves
into society?
• Pardoning Confederate officials
• Allow Confederate states to quickly form new governments
and send representatives to Congress
• Lincoln made it clear that he favored a lenient
Reconstruction policy
• His Ten Percent Plan called for a pardon of all Confederates
who would swear an oath of allegiance to the Union
(Swallow the dog)
• When 10% of the voting population of a state took the
oath, a state would be readmitted into the Union
• The politics of
Reconstruction was
complicated by the fact that
Lincoln, his VP and
successor Andrew Johnson,
and the Congress all had
different ideas of how
Reconstruction should be
Johnson Becomes President
Johnson became President in April of 1865
He was a Democrat
Put on ballot in 1864 with help win border states
Former slave-holder
Was a stubborn unyielding man
Believed Reconstruction was President’s job-NOT
• Offered Amnesty to most white Southerners if
they pledged loyalty to US government
• After Lincoln’s death, his VP &
successor Andrew Johnson
announced his own plan by
supporting Lincoln
• It differed only slightly from
Lincoln’s: He excluded high
ranking Confederates and
wealthy planters from the
oath, but did pardon 13,000
while contending that “White
men alone must manage the
Radical Republicans
Thaddeus Stevens
Some members of the
Republican Party were not only
in favor of the abolition of
slavery but believed that freed
slaves should have complete
equality with white citizens. They
also opposed the Fugitive Slave
Act and the Kansas-Nebraska
Act. This group became known
as Radical Republicans. They
were led by Thaddeus Stevens
of Pennsylvania and Charles
Sumner of Massachusetts. Their
goal was to destroy the South’s
old ruling class and turn it into a
region of small farms, free
schools, respect for labor, and
political equality for all citizens.
Rebuilding Conflicts
• How did the Radical Republicans wish to reorganize
the south?
• Radical Republicans wanted the federal government
to play an active role in dictating a variety of aspects
of Southern society. Most importantly, the Radical
Republicans wanted full and equal citizenship for
• They divided the South into military districts with
Union soldiers placed in Southern states to keep the
• Felt the South should be punish for starting the war
1. In the South what does the reconstruction period
Racial massacres, vigilante violence, and the
riseof para-military groups
2. The Civil War claimed the lives of how many
Southern men?
3. How did Southern men find their homes when they
returned after the war?
They found utter devastation with cities almost
totally destroyed, trains demolished, crops
burned, and animals by the road dead.
4. Why was there a so called “Second Civil War”
against the Republican Party?
Because they represented, as Lincoln did, the
idea of overturning the old order in Southern
• One of the important acts
passed by Congress was the
Civil Rights Act -1866
• All people born in the United
States were citizens (except
Native Americans)
• Citizens entitled to equal
rights regardless of race
• President Johnson vetoed
• Congress overrode the veto
• In 1866, Congress passed
the 14th Amendment
which provided legal
backing to the Civil Rights
• All people born in the
United States were
citizens (except Native
• Equal protection under
the law
• No voting rights for
5. What was the Freedmen’s bureau?
America’s first major relief organization
responsible for the general welfare of the
newly freed slaves.
• Congress also passed the
Freedmen’s Bureau Act
which provided much
needed aid to African
• To assist former slaves, the
president established the
Freedmen’s Bureau. This
agency set up schools and
hospitals for African
Americans and distributed
clothes, food, and fuel
through the South.
6. What were black codes?
Harsh laws designed to regulate the lives of blacks,
to control their movements in the South, and to
force them back onto the plantations.
Black Codes
• The Southern states passed laws, known as Black Codes,
which limited the freedom of former slaves.
• Employment was required of all freedmen; violators
faced vagrancy charges
• African Americans were forbidden to carry a gun or meet
in unsupervised areas; they were forced to work on
plantations if they did not show proof of work
• Freedmen were assumed to be agricultural workers and
their duties and hours were tightly regulated
• Freedmen were not to be taught to read or write
• Public facilities were segregated
• Violators of these laws were subject to being whipped or
7. During the Civil War how many black men served in
the Union Army?
180,000 and many of them were escaped slaves
8. What happened on July 30, 1866, in New Orleans?
Black Union veterans are attacked by a
voluntary police and massacred.
9. The Reconstruction Acts of 1867, an attempt to crush
the ex-confederates, stated what?
All state governments elected before this time
were abolished, new elections were ordered,
and in the elections freemen must be allowed
to vote.
• Congressional Republicans
again joined forces to pass the
Reconstruction Act
• This act voided the state
governments formed in the
South under the Presidential
plans and instead divided the
south into 5 military districts
• Before the South could reenter the Union, they had to
ratify the 14th Amendment
and approve the new state
This image depicts an artisan, a
businessman, and a soldier
standing in line to cast their first
Rebuilding Brings Conflict
• Many Southern states set up governments
much like old ones
• Refused to ratify 13th Amendment
• “This is a white man’s government, intended
for white men only.”
• Passed Black Codes
• Civil War hero U.S. Grant
ran as a Republican against
Democratic nominee
Horatio Seymour
• Grant won by a margin of
300,000 in the popular
• 500,000 African Americans
voted – 90% for Grant
10. The Ku Klux Klan was started in Tennessee by?
The Pulaski 6 who were ex- confederates
• The Klan was formed by
disgruntled Confederate soldiers
whose goals included restoring
Democratic control of the south
and keep former slaves
• Estimates range as high as
20,000 murders attributed to the
Klan whose membership peaked
at almost 4 million in the 1920s
• Many African Americans were
lynched as a form of terror
• The Klan utilized acts of
intimidation and violence to
bring about its goals
11. Who became the first Grand Wizard of the KKK?
Nathan Bedford Forest
12. Ex- confederates formed groups to use violence to
further their racial cause, list the groups.
Red shirts, White liners, White League
13. The Lowry War in North Carolina starts after what?
A Lumbe carpenter and his son were killed, by
the home guard, for helping Union prisoners
escape to the north
14. In northeast Texas a war against ex-confederates was
called what?
The Lee Peacock War
Lewis Peacock was considered a scalawag-a
southerner who remained loyal to the Union.
Peacock tried to suppress white supremisists
who terrorized the area of Northeast Texas.
Bob Lee wanted to get rid of
Peacock and any of his Unionist
15. What changes the tide in northeast Texas in 1871?
President Grant sends Union Troops to confront
the ex-confederates
1868 Election
• In 1868 the Republican party seemed to be
stronger than ever
• That year, its candidate, General Ulysses S.
Grant, won the presidency. During the
campaign the Democrats attacked the
Republicans’ Reconstruction policies. They
blamed the party for granting rights to African
• Soon after Grant’s election,
Congress passed the 15th
• Prevented men form being
stopped from voting based
upon the color of their skin,
Native Americans were
once again exclude
• Women protested because
it failed to give them the
right to vote
• The 15th Amendment was
ratified in 1870
Grant Fights the Klan
• African Americans continued to be terrorized
by the Klan in the South
• Pres. Grant asked Congress to pass a tough
law against the Klan
• Congress approved the bill in 1871
• Federal marshals arrested thousands of
Klansmen the bill was called, the Anti-Klan Bill
Grant signed the
Anti-Klan Bill in 1871.
The Election of 1872
Grant Defeats Horace Greeley of New York
The Liberal Republicans nominated
New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley
to run against Grant. The Democrats who
were in disarray went along with the nomination.
Ulysses S. Grant and
running mate Henry Wilson.
Grant won an overwhelming
victory over Greeley.
Scandal Rocks Grant
• Grant made poor choices for his advisors
• Many were unqualified and corrupt
• Bribes were accepted from the Union Pacific
Railroad to head off a Congressional hearing
by Cabinet members
• Done in by the “Spoils System”
Grant’s Administration was marred with scandal. Although he
was an honest man himself, some of his advisors weren’t.
Republicans broke away and formed the Liberal Republican
Panic of 1873 (-1878)
• Started in Europe and reached the U.S. in the fall of
• Severe economic depression
• Several Banks ran out of money
• More than 18,000 businesses failed
• Stock market collapsed
• 89/364 Railroads went broke
• Midwestern farmers couldn’t move their crops
• Hundreds of workers lost their jobs
• Panic of 1873
Reconstruction Ends
Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes vs Samuel
J. Tilden
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