source-based essay = Oliver Cromwell

Writing a Source-based
Essay for AICE- Paper 1
40% of the Cambridge Exam
Tentatively scheduled for May 7, 2015
Topic = German & Italian Unification
Topic of your first source-based essay = Oliver Cromwell
Skills Required.
 Contextual knowledge
 Comprehension of source based content
 Cross-referencing at least 2 documents
 Understanding of provenance
 Weighing evidence in terms of bias and reliability
 Reaching a reasoned judgment
 Developing a focused and balanced argument
The prompt will always
consist of:
 A collection of source material, some primary, some
secondary. No more than 600 words to read and
 A 2-part question:
 (a) – comparison of sources = 15 points
 (b) – analysis of sources = 25 points
Part (a) of a Source-based
 Content knowledge & AWARENESS of provenance and
historiography = 3 pts.
 A developed comparison of at least 2 sources = 8 pts.
 Evaluation of the sources = 4 pts.
 Total of 15 points for part (a)
 An introduction is not needed. Get straight to the
similarities and differences. Conclude with 1 sentence.
 This is a “starter” paragraph
Part (b) of a Source-based
 Content knowledge & awareness of provenance = 5 pts
 Analysis – quality of answer = 8 pts.
 Grasp of sources – use of grouping = 6 pts.
 Source evaluation = 6 pts.
 Total of 25 points for part (b).
 Conclude with 3 to 4 sentences.
So, to apply this strategy
to your O.C. essay:
 Part (a)
 “To what extent do Sources 1 and 2 agree about the
character of Oliver Cromwell?”
 Compare the 2 sources – grasp what they are saying
 Evaluate the sources for bias, provenance, attitude towards
 Include background content knowledge and show an
awareness of provenance
O.C. Source-based Essay
 Part (b)
 “Oliver Cromwell was a cruel and ruthless man who was
more villain than hero. How far do the sources support
this statement?”
 Analysis – quality of answer
 Grouping the sources as a way of organizing answer
 Source evaluation – bias, provenance, historiography
 Content knowledge
Source 1 – Edward Ludlow (Edmund Ludlowe)
Religious radical, republican, and regicide
Military man, first served with a Wiltshire regiment, later (after 1645) served in the N.M.A.
Baptist (Puritan) Levellor, MP from Wiltshire, assisted with Pride’s Purge, fought in Ireland with the NMA
Refused to sign the Protectorate appointment, criticized Cromwell as having taken absolutism too far, circulated
pamphlets critical of the Lord Protectorate.
He tried to prevent the assumption of power by O.C.
He was ordered home from Ireland in 1656, interviewed by O.C., exiled to Essex and heavily watched for
suspicious activity designed to overthrow O.C. and reinstate the “Commonwealth.”
Opposed to the Restoration – he was a Republican – opposed to any strong ruler (King or Protector ) as head of
Forced to flee to Switzerland where he lived in exile. Probably the last survivor of the regicides.
An autobiography = A Voyce from the Watch Tower … turned into a memoir: The Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow in
1698-9. Censored by fellow Republicans to remove militant Puritan sentiments. Corrected in 1970 when portions
of the original documents were revealed.
Come, I will put an end to your chatter. You are
no Parliament.
 What does O.C. mean by these statements?
 What do historians think Ludlow thought of these
 Can you add a date to this incident? What were O.C.’s
motives for disbanding this Parliament?
 What is Ludlow’s attitude towards Cromwell?
 How does this quote compare to Hyde’s statements in
Source 2?
Edward Hyde, Lord Clarendon
Lawyer and MP to Short and Long Parliaments
Opposed to some of Charles I’s new taxes, but opposed to Puritans agenda to diminish the power of the King
A behind-the-scenes moderate advisor of the King, upset over the King’s extreme action in arresting members of P.
A member of the Royalist Council of War, never fought, but was with Charles in Scotland. Kept pushing for a Constitution that
recognized the power of Parliament – which angered Charles I.
To get rid of him, Charles appointed him guardian of the Prince of Wales (young Charles II.) Forced to join Henrietta in Paris.
He wrote a history: History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars In England – hoping to warn future Kings of the danger of opposing
Stayed with Charles II throughout the 1650s, hoping to prevent him from converting to Roman Catholicism.
A reasonable, Parliament-minded supporter of the English monarchy. Given a title, 1st Lord of Clarendon by Charles II after the
His daughter, Anne, becomes pregnant by James, the brother of Charles II. A hasty marriage.
Fall from power: he criticized the hedonistic behavior of Charles II and suffered trumped charges that resulted in the loss of his title
and his office in government. He fled to France and worked on his History book.
History book considered flawed and rife with bias. It reads like a bitter expose of a man determined to vindicate his actions.
…greatest liar alive….also a stirrer,…courage and
worked hard….more wickedness…even his wickedness
has a great spirit….forced foreign countries to obey him,
and he ruled with an army that worshipped him.
Edward Hyde, Lord Clarendon
 What is Hyde’s assessment of O.C.?
 Hyde’s provenance?
 Could O.C.’s wickedness be related to the disbanding of
Parliament mentioned by Ludlow?
 It is clear from Ludlow that O.C.’s army will do his
A general guide to writing
a paragraph:
 P = make ONE point PER paragraph
 E = explain that point
 E = give an example of the point or an illustration of the
 R = relate the point back to the prompt
A comparison of Sources
1 and 2
 Ludlow is a supporter-turned-hater who exposes O.C.’s
willingness to disband P and NOT wait on them to put a
Constitution in place…
 Hyde is a Royalist supporter who actually has some
respect and admiration for O.C. – and criticizes him, as
 Both “haters” but one criticizes and the other recognizes
O.C.’s courage and passion.
Now, what to do about the “historians?”
For Cromwell
A supporter can “turn” enemy.
.25 Hyde
Even an enemy has something good to say.
.25 Historian 1952
Seems to want to set the
record straight.
Against Cromwell
1.0 Ludlow
.5 Hyde
.5 Historian 1952
Source 4
Source 5
What is the modern,
more moderate attitude
towards Cromwell?
.5 for
Do these documents present a balanced treatment of
the man, Oliver Cromwell?
Keep in mind that Hyde
had a run-in with Charles
and fell from power.
Analyzing a source:
Who wrote it?
When was it written?
What is the context? (What was happening at the time or what was the typical
attitude of the times?)
Who was the intended audience?
Motive – why was it written?
What does it actually say?
How strong is the argument?
How does what it says compare with our subject knowledge and WHAT
Common Weaknesses
 Over-reliance on basic comprehension of source contents
 Face-value interpretation only
 Absence of contextual knowledge
 Lack of effective cross-referencing between sources
 Assumptions about bias
 Unsupported assertions
 Lack of focus on the specific question, lack of balance, or disjointed
 Failing to use all the sources in part (b). Using the wrong sources
for part (a).
To re-cap:
 The O.C. essay will consist of this prompt:
 (a) “To what extent do Sources 1 and 2 agree about the
character of Oliver Cromwell?” (15 points)
 (b) “Oliver Cromwell was a cruel and ruthless man who was
more villain than hero. How far do the sources support this
statement?” (25 points)
 Of course, the grade will be worth more than 40 actual
points. I will make it a test grade worth 160 points.
Some reminders:
Even though your five sources seem short, there is a wealth of
information to be gleaned from them. Don’t be fooled by their brevity.
Please do not disregard this truth.
Go through each with a “fine-toothed” style. You need to become very
familiar with each of them.
You must use all five sources in the essay.
You will have one hour to write this essay in class, when I am finished
teaching the English Civil Wars, the Interregnum, the Restoration, and
the Glorious Revolution.
You will also have the “Tombstone” test on this unit. There are two
family trees on the test AND a map.