CHAPTER 2 The Rise of the Atlantic World, 1400-1625 1. What forces were transforming West Africa before the advent of the Atlantic slave trade? 2. How did European monarchs use commerce and religion to advance their nations’ fortunes? 3. What role did the Columbian exchange play in the formation of an Atlantic world? 4. How did European relations with Native Americans affect the success of early European colonizing efforts? African and European Backgrounds West Africa: Tradition and Change During the 14th and early 15th centuries, Mali (capital city: Timbuktu) was the leading power in the West African savanna This is a poem by Taylor Mali: African and European Backgrounds European Culture and Society From this: to this: From this: to this: African and European Backgrounds European Culture and Society From this: to this: The Enclosure Movement resulted in massive overcrowding in the cities. African and European Backgrounds Religious Upheavals THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION (appealed to the poor and middling classes… NOT the rich) MARTIN LUTHER JOHN CALVIN African and European Backgrounds The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 Henry VIII (1509-1547): Created the Anglican Church (Church of England) Edward VI (1547-1553): Calvinist African and European Backgrounds The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 Mary I (1553-1558): Catholic Elizabeth I (1558-1603): Protestant (mostly) James I (1603-1625): Anglican (disliked Puritans) African and European Backgrounds The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 Separatists PURITANS vs. Non-separatists Appealed to middling classes Appealed to middling classes Calvinists Calvinists Disapproved of many Catholic and Anglican beliefs (i.e. church hierarchy) Disapproved of many Catholic and Anglican beliefs (i.e. church hierarchy) Wanted to separate from the Anglican church Wanted to purify the Anglican church from within Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600 Portugal and the Atlantic, 1400-1500 Portugal, under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator, led the way in European long-distance oceanic explorations Caravel (ship) Magnetic Compass Astrolabe (early GPS system) New, improved maps Looking to trade or raid Unintentional consequence… Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600 The “New Slavery” and Racism Existing Slavery “New” Slavery - Due to indebtedness or POW - Became a prosperous business - Absorbed into the family or released after paying off the debt - Worked laboriously until death - Not overly huge in numbers - Unprecedented magnitude of slaves - Not often tied to religion - It became a Christian duty to own slaves - Race was not a factor - Race became a HUGE factor - A PERSON - DEHUMANIZED PROPERTY Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600 To the Americas and Beyond, 1492-1522 Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600 Spain’s Conquistadors, 1492-1536 Christopher Columbus What many Americans perceive about Columbus… • He was Spanish • He was the first to propose that the world was round • He discovered America • He discovered America • He was friendly to the “Indians” • He was famous • He became rich Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600 Spain’s Conquistadors, 1492-1536 Christopher Columbus What many people didn’t learn about Columbus… • • • • • • • He was Italian (Genoese) He never reached the mainland of North or South America He didn’t discover America as much as he ran into a land mass that was already occupied He died poor and fairly unknown He was “America’s” first slave trader (Taino Indians followed by black Africans) He was responsible for “America’s” first gold rush He was possibly “America’s” first Christian missionary Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600 Spain’s Conquistadors, 1492-1536 Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Conquered the Aztec Empire Conquered the Inca Empire Both were extremely brutal men Central Mexican population in 1519: 13-25 million Central Mexican population in 1600: 700,000 Used surprise and better weapons, but mostly… SMALLPOX to cultivate the greatest demographic disaster in world history! Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600 The Columbian Exchange Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 Spain’s Northern Frontier Hernando de Soto He went looking for… GOLD He didn’t find any, however he pretty much wiped out the Mississippian Native American population with diseases whilst exploring Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 Spain’s Northern Frontier Francisco Vásquez de Coronado He also went looking for gold… the seven cities of gold He also didn’t find any gold on his explorations He did, however, make a lot of the Native Americans dislike the Spanish Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 Spain’s Northern Frontier Juan de Oñate He proclaimed the area of modern day New Mexico for the Spanish. He was very brutal and enslaved many Native Americans. Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 Spain’s Northern Frontier Saint Augustine, Florida (1565) North America’s first PERMANENT EUROPEAN settlement It was a Spanish military base meant to fend off the English and French. It was also used as a missionary base. Now it’s a tourist trap Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 France: Colonizing Canada Giovanni de Verrazano and Jacques Cartier looked for gold and the NW Passage… they found neither, but claimed a lot of territory for France Verrazano Cartier Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 France: Colonizing Canada The French did find their “gold” in the form of… They became allies with the Huron Indians, and helped them fight their enemies… the Mohawks and other tribes belonging to the Iroquois Confederacy Quebec (1608) established by Samuel de Champlain Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 England and the Atlantic World, 1558-1603 Like everyone else, the English were looking for the NW Passage and gold. Like everyone else, they didn’t find either of them. So, sea dogs (like Francis Drake) started to raid Spanish fleets and ports (pirates). When the English defeated the Spanish Armada (1588) it allowed them to focus more on the New World. Walter Raleigh attempted a permanent colony at Roanoke, however, when he returned he found that all the colonists were gone. All that was left was… Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 A joint-stock company, the Virginia Company of London, went looking for gold. In so doing, they created the first permanent ENGLISH settlement in Jamestown, Virginia Colony (1607) Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 John Smith Pocahontas John Rolfe Saved the colony with his policy of “He who does not work, shall not eat.” Saved the colony with Saved the colony with her convincing her father, his salable variety of tobacco. the Chief, to feed the starving colonists. Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 • Headrights greatly helped to increase the population • 50 acres to whomever paid their transportation • So… the RICH people paid the way for many indentured servants to come to Jamestown, and the RICH folks got huge tracts of land • Most of the indentured servants died before their service (usually 4-7 years) was over Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 New England Begins, 1614-1625 The Peanuts Gang actually does a fairly good job of telling the story… up until the part where the colonists start mistreating the Indians. Footholds in North America, 1512-1625 A “New Netherland” on the Hudson, 1609-1625 The Dutch explorers (who hired the Englishman, Henry Hudson) claimed much of the Hudson River and the SW tip of Manhattan Island in modern day New York. They also made fur their main focus. They allied themselves with the Iroquois Nations, especially the Mohawks who were enemies of the Huron Indians (who were allies with the French.