Chapter 2: Rise of the Atlantic World 1400

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Chapter 2: Rise of the Atlantic
World 1400-1625
Section 1
Focus Question:
• What forces were transforming West Africa
before the advent of the Atlantic Slave Trade?
• How did European monarchs use commerce and
religion to advance their nation’s fortunes?
Big Picture:
• Market W. Africa & W. Europe
• Rise in Euro pop & power shift
• Social, political, & religious problems.
African & European Backgrounds
WEST AFRICA
1. Empire of Mali
a.Trading- with the Middle East
b.Exports- Gold & slaves
2. Leaders & Kinship-tied clans together
3. Family Life
a.Children-workers and produced money
b.Farming-source of income, rotation
4. Religion-belief in the supernatural,
reason for everything
a. Polytheistic-more than one god
African & European Backgrounds:
Europe
1. Renaissance Era “Rebirth”
a. Europe’s race to be # 1
b. Gender, wealth, and inherited position
c. Kingdoms married to create alliances and power
2. Society Structure & Feudalism
a.
b.
c.
d.
Taxation from Catholic Church = 75% poor
Deforestation, overpopulation, & starvation
“Poor Laws”
Nuclear families mirror feudalism
African & European Backgrounds:
Europe
3. Business
a. “Just Price”
• More traditional trading practice
b. “Joint Stock Companies”
• Ex: VA Company or East India Company
c. Capitalism or “market economies”
• New business idea: “Anything to make a profit”
African & European Backgrounds:
Religion
1. 1200-1500 European Christian led
“crusades” on Muslims.
2. 1400’s Spanish Catholics led the Spanish
Reconquest spreading Catholicism.
3. Most of Europe was controlled by the
Catholic Church, including the King.
• Strong beliefs led to fears of witchcraft
• Followers paid “indulgences” to be
forgiven of sin
African & European Backgrounds:
Religion
4. German Monk Martin Luther 1517
•
•
•
Protested indulgences, church “corruption”
Began Protestant Reformation
95 Theses
5. John Calvin & Calvinists
•
•
•
Predestination-God can only choose your
fate, try to avoid sin
Denied God gave priests special powers
Wanted the Bible to be translated from Latin
African & European Backgrounds:
Religious Upheavals
6. Counter Reformation
•
•
•
Council of Trent 1545-Ordered by Pope to
change church structure, ignore Protestants
Teresa of Avila & Ignatius Loyola (Jesuits)
England: Anglican France & Spain: Catholic
African & European Backgrounds:
Reformation in England 1533-1625
7. Church of England-created after King Henry
VIII requested divorce from Catherine of
Aragon
• Head of church, land, $, and broke alliance
with Spain.
• “Bloody Mary”-daughter killed Protestants
• Elizabeth I-daughter allowed open religion
• Calvinists: Puritans & Separatists
• “No bishop, no king”
The Three G’s
Section 2
Focus Question
• What role did Columbian exchange play in the
formation of the Atlantic world?
Big Picture:
• Rulers search for new trade
• Religious leaders seek to convert
• Slave trade & colonization
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
Portugal & the Atlantic 1400-1500
1. Desire for wealth, power, & trade in Asia,
Africa, & Americas
2. New technology & mapping
•
Arab sail, compass, cartographers
3. Prince Henry “the Navigator”
•
•
Paid sailors (Dias & de Gama) to sail around Africa
to make new trading ties for gold and slaves
de Gama made trade connections in India
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
New Slavery & Racism
1. Slavery existed in Africa due to debt, prisoners
of war, or gifts.
•
Eventually became apart of masters family or
released
2. Europeans exchanged items for slave labor
•
•
Trading slaves to other tribes for gold
Portuguese introduced guns which fueled wars
3. “New Slavery”-slaves use for labor vs servants
•
12 million traded, dehumanized, began basis for
racism.
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522
1. 1492-Columbus & Spain exploration of the
West Indies (Cuba/Hispaniola) led others to
race for Asia.
2. Treaty of Tordesillas-Spain (N) & Portugal (S)
would split future discoveries in the Americas,
blocking others.
•
•
•
•
England-John Cabot to Canada
France- Jacques Cartier to Nova Scotia
Italy-Amerigo Vespucci, “named” America
Spain-Ferdinand Magellan around S. America
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522
3. Spain
•
•
•
Used slave labor or local Tainos to mine gold
Established Puerto Rico (Ponce de Leon), Jamaica,
& Cuba
Converting Natives
4. Conquistadores
•
•
Cortez- “New Spain” or Mexico-Aztecs (25 mil killed)
Pizarro-Peru-Incas
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
Columbian Exchange
1. Linked Europe, Africa, & Americas
•
•
•
Diseases, food, & animals
Racial slavery
Colonization by Europeans
2. Small pox killed millions of Natives
3. New crops destroyed the soil
•
Sugar &tobacco
4. Cultures combined
•
•
Métis-Indian & Europeans
Mestizos-Indian & Spanish
Section 3
Focus Question
• How did European relations with Native
Americans affect the success of early European
colonizing efforts?
Big Picture:
• Europeans moved to Mexico, Caribbean, &
Americas.
• Colonization proved unrealistic
• NA populations decreased
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
Spain
1. Exploration of “New Mexico” or Mexico & Florida
•
•
•
•
Ponce de Leon “La Florida”
Cabeza de Vaca—N. Mexico
de Soto—Florida to Appalachian
de Coronado—Mexico to Southwest
2. St. Augustine, FL—1565 1st Spanish fort
•
Used as missionary or “presidio”
3. Ecomiendas—giving Native slave labor to any
Spaniard immigrating to the colony.
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
France
1. Giovanni de Verranzano—1524
•
•
Look for a Northwest Passage to Pacific
Carolinas to Newfoundland
2. Jacques Cartier—1536
•
Newfoundland, Quebec, & Nova Scotia
3. Calvinist Huegonots—1562
•
•
Jacksonville, FL for religious freedom
Killed by Spanish
4. Fur trade & alliance with Huron & Algonquians.
5. Samuel de Champlain—1608
•
“New France” or Quebec
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
England
1. Christian England vs Catholic Spain & France
•
•
Elizabeth I funded attacks on Spanish ships (Drake)
Spain gave Catholic Ireland money to fight England
2. Main objectives: NW Passage & gold
•
•
1570’s—failure in California & Canada
1584—Attempt in Roanoke, Virginia with Sir Walter
Raleigh ended in “lost colony”
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
Virginia 1603-1625
1. 1604—Truce with Spain, handing over VA
•
•
“Joint-stock” fund colonization
Maine to North Carolina
2. Jamestown, VA 1607—failure!
•
•
•
John Smith, military leader raided local Powhatans
NA hoped for alliance to avoid further conflicts
1st Anglo-Powhatan War 1610
3. Tobacco—major cash crop
•
Need for indentured servants (4-7 years service)
4. By 1622—VA; no money, low population, & no
alliances.
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
New England
1. Thomas Weston, 1620 led 24 families on
Mayflower to Plymouth, MASS
• Mostly Separatist Puritans who left England, went to
Netherlands
• Gather furs & lumber for 7 years = own land
2. Mayflower Compact
3. Alliance with Squanto & Samoset
4. “New Netherland” 1609
•
•
•
Settled along Hudson River, trading furs with Iroquois
Established Manhattan
Caused competition with French
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