Chapter 2: Rise of the Atlantic World 1400

Chapter 2: Rise of the Atlantic
World 1400-1625
Section 1
Focus Question:
• What forces were transforming West Africa
before the advent of the Atlantic Slave Trade?
• How did European monarchs use commerce and
religion to advance their nation’s fortunes?
Big Picture:
• Market W. Africa & W. Europe
• Rise in Euro pop & power shift
• Social, political, & religious problems.
African & European Backgrounds
1. Empire of Mali
a.Trading- with the Middle East
b.Exports- Gold & slaves
2. Leaders & Kinship-tied clans together
3. Family Life
a.Children-workers and produced money
b.Farming-source of income, rotation
4. Religion-belief in the supernatural,
reason for everything
a. Polytheistic-more than one god
African & European Backgrounds:
1. Renaissance Era “Rebirth”
a. Europe’s race to be # 1
b. Gender, wealth, and inherited position
c. Kingdoms married to create alliances and power
2. Society Structure & Feudalism
Taxation from Catholic Church = 75% poor
Deforestation, overpopulation, & starvation
“Poor Laws”
Nuclear families mirror feudalism
African & European Backgrounds:
3. Business
a. “Just Price”
• More traditional trading practice
b. “Joint Stock Companies”
• Ex: VA Company or East India Company
c. Capitalism or “market economies”
• New business idea: “Anything to make a profit”
African & European Backgrounds:
1. 1200-1500 European Christian led
“crusades” on Muslims.
2. 1400’s Spanish Catholics led the Spanish
Reconquest spreading Catholicism.
3. Most of Europe was controlled by the
Catholic Church, including the King.
• Strong beliefs led to fears of witchcraft
• Followers paid “indulgences” to be
forgiven of sin
African & European Backgrounds:
4. German Monk Martin Luther 1517
Protested indulgences, church “corruption”
Began Protestant Reformation
95 Theses
5. John Calvin & Calvinists
Predestination-God can only choose your
fate, try to avoid sin
Denied God gave priests special powers
Wanted the Bible to be translated from Latin
African & European Backgrounds:
Religious Upheavals
6. Counter Reformation
Council of Trent 1545-Ordered by Pope to
change church structure, ignore Protestants
Teresa of Avila & Ignatius Loyola (Jesuits)
England: Anglican France & Spain: Catholic
African & European Backgrounds:
Reformation in England 1533-1625
7. Church of England-created after King Henry
VIII requested divorce from Catherine of
• Head of church, land, $, and broke alliance
with Spain.
• “Bloody Mary”-daughter killed Protestants
• Elizabeth I-daughter allowed open religion
• Calvinists: Puritans & Separatists
• “No bishop, no king”
The Three G’s
Section 2
Focus Question
• What role did Columbian exchange play in the
formation of the Atlantic world?
Big Picture:
• Rulers search for new trade
• Religious leaders seek to convert
• Slave trade & colonization
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
Portugal & the Atlantic 1400-1500
1. Desire for wealth, power, & trade in Asia,
Africa, & Americas
2. New technology & mapping
Arab sail, compass, cartographers
3. Prince Henry “the Navigator”
Paid sailors (Dias & de Gama) to sail around Africa
to make new trading ties for gold and slaves
de Gama made trade connections in India
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
New Slavery & Racism
1. Slavery existed in Africa due to debt, prisoners
of war, or gifts.
Eventually became apart of masters family or
2. Europeans exchanged items for slave labor
Trading slaves to other tribes for gold
Portuguese introduced guns which fueled wars
3. “New Slavery”-slaves use for labor vs servants
12 million traded, dehumanized, began basis for
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522
1. 1492-Columbus & Spain exploration of the
West Indies (Cuba/Hispaniola) led others to
race for Asia.
2. Treaty of Tordesillas-Spain (N) & Portugal (S)
would split future discoveries in the Americas,
blocking others.
England-John Cabot to Canada
France- Jacques Cartier to Nova Scotia
Italy-Amerigo Vespucci, “named” America
Spain-Ferdinand Magellan around S. America
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522
3. Spain
Used slave labor or local Tainos to mine gold
Established Puerto Rico (Ponce de Leon), Jamaica,
& Cuba
Converting Natives
4. Conquistadores
Cortez- “New Spain” or Mexico-Aztecs (25 mil killed)
Europe & the Atlantic World 1400-1600
Columbian Exchange
1. Linked Europe, Africa, & Americas
Diseases, food, & animals
Racial slavery
Colonization by Europeans
2. Small pox killed millions of Natives
3. New crops destroyed the soil
Sugar &tobacco
4. Cultures combined
Métis-Indian & Europeans
Mestizos-Indian & Spanish
Section 3
Focus Question
• How did European relations with Native
Americans affect the success of early European
colonizing efforts?
Big Picture:
• Europeans moved to Mexico, Caribbean, &
• Colonization proved unrealistic
• NA populations decreased
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
1. Exploration of “New Mexico” or Mexico & Florida
Ponce de Leon “La Florida”
Cabeza de Vaca—N. Mexico
de Soto—Florida to Appalachian
de Coronado—Mexico to Southwest
2. St. Augustine, FL—1565 1st Spanish fort
Used as missionary or “presidio”
3. Ecomiendas—giving Native slave labor to any
Spaniard immigrating to the colony.
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
1. Giovanni de Verranzano—1524
Look for a Northwest Passage to Pacific
Carolinas to Newfoundland
2. Jacques Cartier—1536
Newfoundland, Quebec, & Nova Scotia
3. Calvinist Huegonots—1562
Jacksonville, FL for religious freedom
Killed by Spanish
4. Fur trade & alliance with Huron & Algonquians.
5. Samuel de Champlain—1608
“New France” or Quebec
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
1. Christian England vs Catholic Spain & France
Elizabeth I funded attacks on Spanish ships (Drake)
Spain gave Catholic Ireland money to fight England
2. Main objectives: NW Passage & gold
1570’s—failure in California & Canada
1584—Attempt in Roanoke, Virginia with Sir Walter
Raleigh ended in “lost colony”
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
Virginia 1603-1625
1. 1604—Truce with Spain, handing over VA
“Joint-stock” fund colonization
Maine to North Carolina
2. Jamestown, VA 1607—failure!
John Smith, military leader raided local Powhatans
NA hoped for alliance to avoid further conflicts
1st Anglo-Powhatan War 1610
3. Tobacco—major cash crop
Need for indentured servants (4-7 years service)
4. By 1622—VA; no money, low population, & no
Footholds in North America 1512-1625
New England
1. Thomas Weston, 1620 led 24 families on
Mayflower to Plymouth, MASS
• Mostly Separatist Puritans who left England, went to
• Gather furs & lumber for 7 years = own land
2. Mayflower Compact
3. Alliance with Squanto & Samoset
4. “New Netherland” 1609
Settled along Hudson River, trading furs with Iroquois
Established Manhattan
Caused competition with French
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