Uploaded by Wilbertlucena23


Feasibility Study on Tapioca Starch as a Bioplastic bag ;
Science Investigatory Project Proposal
Submitted to:
Mr. Alexander R. Efren
Subject teacher
Submitted by:
Glory Marie Gel Cascara
Nollyn Joyce P Perodes
Novy Grace S. Madelo
Nathaniel V. Domiquel
Cherry Mae Elevazo
Soo-Cheol M. Chae
Wilbert C. Lucena
Marbie F. Aton
Background of The Study
Nowadays, the use of non-biodegradable plastics can be comparable to the usage of
metals, because practically every product found in the environment contains some, if not all,
plastic components. One reason for this is its widespread availability and low manufacturing
costs. From various realms of technology to pharmaceuticals to the needs of life, The demand for
plastics is increasing for everyone. This increasing demand has contributed significantly to the
current global waste problem. Over the years, researchers have worked to discover alternatives to
this global problem, such as biodegradable plastics, that would help to mitigate, if not completely
eliminate, this enormous problem. One excellent answer to this problem is to use tapioca starch
in the development of biodegradable polymers.
Plastics are carbon-based polymers derived mostly from petroleum. These plastics are
commonly used in product- packaging in most markets in the country. They are water-proof and
easy to use. However, there are problems attached in using plastics. Getting rid of the said
plastics is extremely difficult. According to a study led by the University of Georgia (2012), the
Philippines have dumped 1 billion tons of plastics in the ocean in 2010. On the other hand, the
country’s population is enormously fast-growing compared to other countries in Asia. This huge
population results to the production of tons of plastics every year. These plastics will take years
before they completely decompose. Due to the longtime of decomposition, the disposals of the
said plastics have been one of the biggest problems of the country.
Bio plastics, however, are plastics that are derived from renewable resources or
biodegradable or both. (Science Learn, 2013) These are plastics that are derived from vegetable
oil, corn starch, plant cellulose, and/or bacteria (Goodall, 2011).
Biodegradable plastics are a new generation of polymers emerging on the world market.
Biodegradable plastics have an expanding range of potential applications, and driven by the
growing use of plastics in packaging and the perception that biodegradable plastics are
‘environmentally friendly’, their use is predicted to increase. However, issues are also emerging
regarding the use of biodegradable plastics and their potential impacts on the environment and
effects on established recycling systems and technologies. The tapioca starch was selected for
this experiment because it is a waste material rich of starch-according to Songklanakarin Journal
of Science and Technology,
According to the Packaging Bulletin Magazine’s January issue, it is a proven fact that
starch and cellulose are important raw materials used in the biodegradable plastic industry
(Packaging Bulletin, 2009). Since they are rich with starch and this starch is very easy to extract,
potatoes are the most commonly used raw materials. For this experiment we use different type of
material that is tapioca starch because it's made from property biomass, and this will employed to
create perishable plastic bag.
This generation of Tapioca starch-based polymers is totally biodegradable and it is one of
the most commonly used biopolymers in food packaging because it is non-toxic, low cost,
renewable, and abundant in nature. In many applications, this material successfully replaces
polystyrene and polyethylene (Rustogy and Chandra, 1998). By 2025, the global market for
biodegradable plastics is expected to reach USD 6.73 billion
The implementation of sustainable practices will help minimize our impact on the
environment and conserve resources for future generations. Industrial progress in packaging
technology in future appears to be moving forwards newer breed of bio-materials. To that end,
there is a need to perpetuate the culture of environmental stewardship and sustainability that has
grown stronger in recent years. Although some of the starch-based materials and other
biopolymers may not currently be cost-competitive with petroleum plastics, this may change as
petroleum prices continue to increase. Improved the properties of starch-based plastics by
blending starch with other polymers, using starch in composite materials, and using starch as a
biodegradable feed stock to make other biopolymers have been successful in developing viable
replacements for petroleum based plastics. The prospects for starch in the packaging sector
continue to become brighter as the market for sustainable plastics drives further innovation and
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to create biodegradable plastic bags from tapioca starches. Specifically, it
aims to answer the following specific questions:
1. How does the quality of the biodegradable plastic bags made from the cassava starch compare
to the regular bags in terms of mass capacity
2. Can tapioca starch-based bioplastic bag be an alternative plastic bag?
The following statements are based on questions given by the researchers arriving with
intelligent predictions for the problem.
H0 : There is no significant difference between commercial bag and tapioca starch biodegradable
plastic bags.
HA : Is there is a significant difference between commercial bag and tapioca starch biodegradable
plastic bags .
Significance of The Study
This study will focus on making tapioca starch-based bio plastic bags. Moreover, the
outcome of this study will be beneficial to the following:
This study will be beneficial to the environment because the use of cassava starch to
make biodegradable plastic bags is the significant reduction in the carbon emissions that happen
during the manufacturing process as compared to that of regular plastic. Not just that, since the
materials used to create biodegradable plastics are plant based, minimal carbon is emitted during
the composting process.
Eco-bag Industry
Ecobags not only recycle material that would be going to waste, they also eliminate the
need for single-use plastic bags that have proven to harm the environment for it is time- efficient
in terms of decomposition rate traditional plastics, recyclabe and toxin-free. They are moldable
and can be turned into various appealing ways to suit the community’s requirements.
Entrepreneurs and consumers alike see this research into turning tapioca starch into
biodegradable plastic bags as a sustainable business strategy. Consumers generally prefer
companies that use biodegradable plastics to those that do not care about the environment, which
can benefit employees and shareholders who benefit from higher company earnings.
This study serves the community by minimizing the quantity of overall garbage in
landfills by using biodegradable plastic bags manufactured from cassava starch. Regular plastics,
on the other hand, do not dissolve fast, resulting in landfills that continue to grow in size over
time and containing potentially dangerous substances that decay in a harmful manner.
Biodegradable polymers, on the other hand, produce better results since they degrade more
quickly and cleanly.
Scope and limitations
This study entitled " Feasibility Study on Tapioca Starch as a Bioplastic bag" aims to
prove that bioplastic bags with tapioca starch as a main ingredient can withstand durability, rate
of decomposition and degration, and water solubility of the product better than common used
plastics in the market. This study is limited to only using tapioca starch as an efficient main
ingredient for making a bioplastic bag as a solution for plastic waste control in Alegria, Surigao
del Norte.
Definition Of Terms:
Biodegradable plastic bag- is one that is manufactured from tapioca starches and may be easily
Tapioca Starch- is an ingredient that improves the biodegradability of the biodegradable plastic.
Distilled Water- neutralizes the mixture and doesn’t make it all murky on the making.
Durability- refers to the ability of a biodegradable plastic bag made from tapioca starch to retain
a specific amount of weight before degrading.
Glycerol/glycerine - the plasticizer component of the experiment.
Sustainability – it is employed as a component of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that
does not result in a long-term decline of biological diversity, preserving its ability to meet the
needs and ambitions of current and future generations.
Vinegar- equalize the polymers that the starch gives out.
Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
This section includes the overview of literatures and studies concerning the topic that
encompasses the background on Tapioca Starch as an Alternative to Biodegradable Plastic Bags
and the process of biodegradable plastic tapioca making.
Fate of plastics in the environment
Humans are unconsciously reliant on the use of plastic. Plastic is one of the few items
that cannot be separated from human life. Thousands of plastic companies produce tons of
plastic goods that are widely utilized by people due to their simplicity, low cost, and
convenience. They have a dangerous negative influence on the environment because they are
non-biodegradable. The disposal of plastic garbage, which is a major source of pollution, causes
cancer in people, as well as birth defects, immune system impairment, endocrine disruption,
development, and reproductive effects (Pavani & Rajeswari, 2014).
Nowadays, pollution is worsening because plastics and their byproducts litter our cities,
oceans, and waterways, adding to human and animal health issues. Plastics are currently one of
the most harmful pollutants on the planet. Commercial plastics are useful not only because of
their sturdiness but also because they can be reused over and over again. It is unfortunately nonbiodegradable. Commercial plastics accumulate as non-biodegradable wastes, which is a
perennial issue. Plastic pollutes the environment and causes water pollution since it is made up of
harmful compounds and is nonbiodegradable.
Plastics are used in a variety of industries and household appliances nowadays. Plastics
are widely employed in a variety of applications, including hand luggage, cold drink bottles,
toys, food packaging, electrical equipment components and containers, car modules, office block
segments, furniture, and garment materials. Until 2015, yearly manufacturing of petroleum based
plastics was estimated to be above 300 million tons.The emission of carbon and a variety of
other hazardous gases during the production of plastic bags is a source of environmental concern.
Polyethylene plastic films, such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density
polyethylene (HDPE), are commonly used to make a range of polyethylene plastic films, with
the disadvantage that they are non-degradable. Over 1000 million tons of plastic were discarded
as waste, and it could take hundreds of years for them to decompose. The proportion of plastics
in municipal solid trash is steadily increasing. When plastic garbage is thrown in landfills, it
interacts with water and forms toxic compounds, potentially affecting the quality of drinking
water. As a result, efforts are being made to minimize the usage of synthetic plastics while
promoting the use of bioplastics.
Plastic Production
Plastics are all around us, and they are utilized for a variety of reasons because they are
inexpensive, readily available, and long-lasting (Narissara & Shabbir, 2013). Until date, around
8.3 billion metric tons of plastic have been manufactured, with approximately 6.3 thousand
metric tons of plastic garbage. Only 9% of the waste plastic was recycled, 12% was burnt, and
the remaining 79% was disposed of in a sanitary landfill or in the environment. By 2050, it is
expected that 12 thousand metric tons of discarded plastics would have accumulated in sanitary
landfills or in the open environment (Geyer et al., 2017).
Society is becoming increasingly concerned about the excessive use and disposal of
plastic packaging materials because it is liable for a wide range of environmental issues on a
direct basis. Plastics are commonly used in food packaging because of their low cost and good
barrier qualities (Kirwan et al., 2011; Mandal, 2015). According to the Macarthur Foundation, 78
million tons of plastic packaging are manufactured worldwide each year (Axelsson & van
Sebille, 2017), with the food industry accounting for roughly 69 percent of total (Geueke et al.,
In addition, Geyer (2017) wrote in an online journal that plastics production has grown in
the past 65 years and has outnumbered and outpaced other materials when it comes to
manufacturing. These plastics have become so versatile in many ways durability and degradation
resistance that it has become impossible for nature to assimilate them back. So, some studies
aimed to find solution to minimize the use of plastics by finding alternatives that has the same
use and purpose for plastics but has different formula that will allow it to decompose through
time. One example for this is the biodegradable bags made from Cassava starch.
One of the most serious issues facing our planet today is plastic pollution. According to a
meta-analysis by Gaurav (2007), most common packaging materials (i.e., steel, aluminum,
glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recycled; however, if packaging
materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling may be
impractical. As a result, composting some of these packaging materials could be a viable option
for reducing Municipal waste (Gaurav 2007). Plastics are produced in excess of 45 million tons
per year, and due to their long-life qualities, practically every piece of plastic ever made still
exists today. Biodegradable polymers may provide a viable answer to all of these issues.
Biodegradable plastics are a far better alternative than non biodegradable plastics since they are
more environmentally friendly. Biodegradable plastics degrade faster, are easier to recycle, and
are non-toxic. We could help save lives and the environment by using biodegradable plastics that
have these features, as well as decrease the harm that plastics pose to marine life.
Composting could become one of the most common techniques for disposing of
packaging waste as biopolymers are created and widely used in applications such as food,
pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, if industry, governments, and consumers
encourage and welcome this alternative. However, in an era which technology is at the peak, not
everyone can easily adapt in this way of using an alternative product for packaging and other
useful ways, especially those who tend to put their budget first and those who question the
product. According to Kale Gaurav (2007), packaging compostability could be an alternative for
the disposal of biobased materials if society as a whole is willing to formally address the
challenge of clearly understanding the cradle-to-grave life of a compostable package and
including these new compostable polymers in food, manure, or yard waste composting facilities.
Bioplastic as Packaging Material
Growing health and environmental concerns necessitate quick action on a global scale to
find a sustainable and biodegradable alternative to plastics as a packaging material. The use of
plastics is increasing all the time. Despite the fact that plastic is difficult to degrade, it is
nonetheless utilized for a variety of product packaging. This resilience, contrary to popular
belief, constitutes a barrier in protecting the environment from the accumulation of plastic waste.
There are several options for replacing plastic with a more environmentally friendly substance.
Bioplastics made from tapioca starch are one of them. This material, known as bioplastic, is an
environmentally friendly plastic that has been developed to minimize environmental impact. This
innovation creates new economic prospects by connecting manufacturers and buyers through
new technology and goods.
Bio plastics are the kind of plastic that is degradable and is/or derive from renewable
resources and not based in petrochemicals. It can be used to reduce the problem of contaminating
the plastic waste that suffocates and contaminates the environment (Acciona, 2015).
Bio plastics have several benefits. The use of renewable resources to produce bio plastics
is the key for: increasing resource efficiency by the means of the resources being cultivated on an
(at least) annual basis and the principle of cascade use, as biomass can first be used for materials
and then for energy generation; reducing the emission of carbon footprints and GHG of the
product; conserving fossil fuels by substituting them step by step. (European Bioplastic, 2016).
Biodegradable plastics are a new generation of polymers emerging on the world market.
Biodegradable plastics have an expanding range of potential applications, and driven by the
growing use of plastics in packaging and the perception that biodegradable plastics are
‘environmentally friendly’, their use is predicted to increase. However, issues are also emerging
regarding the use of biodegradable plastics and their potential impacts on the environment and
effects on established recycling systems and technologies.
This bioplastic do not release carbon or methane as no carbon is used in its
manufacturing process. Biodegradable plastics bags are broken down by naturally-occurring
bacteria & since this plastics are plant-based, minimal amount of carbon is released during the
composting process.
Biodegradable plastic starch development and production are essential. Water in starch
and other plasticizers is essential because hydrogen plasticizers can establish bonds with starch,
replacing the strong action between the hydroxy groups of star molecules, and causing the starch
to demonstrate plasticization. Because of its brittleness and hydrophilic nature, starch performs
poorly in packaging applications when used alone (Latina,2013). Finding the ideal plasticizer
that provides flexibility is crucial (Ma, 2004).
Bioplastic research was carried out in order to limit the usage of plastics that pollute the
environment. Researchers have done a variety of studies in order to develop an environmentally
beneficial alternative to plastics in order to manage plastic waste on the planet. Bioplastics are an
environmentally beneficial alternative that can be disposed of in the environment and break
down quickly thanks to the enzymatic activity of microorganisms (Gill, 2014).
Tapioca Starch: The Future of Sustainable Packaging
Tapioca starch is one of the most commonly used biopolymers in food packaging because
it is non-toxic, biodegradable, low cost, renewable, and abundant in nature. Its main component
is starch, but it may also contain lipid, protein, fiber, and ash. Starch is crucial in the formation of
bioplastics. Today, starch-based bioplastics account for 66% of the global bioplastics market
(Mulyono, et al, 2015).
This generation of Tapioca starch-based polymers is totally biodegradable. In many
applications, this material successfully replaces polystyrene and polyethylene (Rustogy &
Chandra, 1998). By 2025, the global market for biodegradable plastics is expected to reach USD
6.73 billion. The global biodegradable market was led by the starch-based category. Growing
consumer awareness of global warming, as well as government laws such as plastic bag bans,
will drive demand for biodegradable plastics all across the world. Biodegradable plastics are
those that breakdown into carbon dioxide and water when exposed to microorganisms.
Biodegradable plastics are most commonly used in the packaging business. Over the forecasted
period, rising demand for biodegradable plastics as significant packaging applications in food &
beverage, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and consumer products would boost market growth. The
demand for biodegradable polymers in the packaging industry is increasing due to changing
consumer lifestyles and an increase in packaged food product consumption in developed nations.
The most abundant raw material for the development of biodegradable plastics is starch due to
its in large availability quantity. In addition, conventional plastics have certain properties that
make them “distinct”, recyclable plastics are going to be demanded in majority in the near future
because of its environmentally friendly in all methods of production would be used extremely.
We will not be able to eliminate the use of plastic immediately. However, we can use
eco-friendly bioplastics as an alternative. It will not pollute the environment and will completely
disintegrate in the soil. Bioplastic will be an excellent solution to the world's most pressing
environmental issue. (S. S. Shrirakshaya,et.al 2020).
Today, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, renewable-energy products are prized for
their environmental benefits. favorable impact on the environment Increasing awareness in
general consumers all across the world are turning away from traditional plastic products, which,
although helpful, are running rampant on the environment. The ecology, water resources, and the
overall ecosystem are all in jeopardy. Plastic pollution in the environment, and the need to
reduce it . Biodegradable plastics/ packaging have been developed in response to the scarcity of
arable land, the wear and tear on oil wells, and the release of gases during cremation (Mohatny et
al, 2015). Since the Philippines contains a varied range of starch-producing plants, using tapioca
starch as the principal ingredient in the creation of bioplastic bags offers a lot of potential
(Wahyuningtiyas & Suryanto, 2017). Currently, starch-based bioplastics account for 66% of the
worldwide bioplastics market (Mulyono, et al, 2015).
Components of Tapioca Starch
Tapioca starch, made from property biomass, is employed to create perishable plastic
luggage. Most bioplastics area unit expected to attenuate the utilization of fossil fuels and plastic
waste, furthermore as dioxide emissions. The biodegradability properties of those plastics have a
positive impact on society, and therefore the increased awareness of perishable packaging
attracts researchers and businesses. analyzable plastics area unit employed in a range of
applications that stimulate plastic use. Polymers area unit ofttimes factory-made from crude oil
merchandise, necessitating the utilization of extra fossil fuels, that pollutes the surroundings.
Bioplastic presently accounts for around 1 Chronicles of the yearly plastic production of over
three hundred million tons. The market, on the opposite hand, is ceaselessly increasing as
demand for innovative biopolymers for a large vary of applications and product grows. The
quantity of bioplastics production is calculable to succeed in 44 million tons in 2022. Natural
materials like lignins, proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides are often wont to generate bioplastics
(e.g., starch, chitin, and cellulose).
This chapter presents an outline of research methods that will be followed in the study.
It contains the methodology, the inclusion criteria, the subject and sampling technique to be
used in the study. It also describes the instrument used for data collection and includes the
procedures of data gathering to conduct this study. Lastly, the statistical treatment that is used
for accurate data analysis and interpretation are also discussed.
This study will determine the feasibility study on Tapioca starch as a bio plastic bag.
Method of Research Used
This study will use the experimental It will be conducted with a scientific approach so
experimental and control are used where a set of variables will be contrast with regards to its
appearance, effectiveness and water absorption of the plastic made of tapioca starch. The
experimental variables will be manipulated as well as the treatment and the subjects, therefore
experimental research method will be used. Quantitative research will be demonstrated because
it will generate numerical data from respondents through the use of survey questionnaire.
Materials and Methods
Materials Preparation
Tapioca starch is an ingredient that improves the biodegradability of the biodegradable
plastic. Glycerol or glycerine as the plasticizer component of the experiment. Distilled water
which neutralizes the mixture and does not make it all murky on the making and Vinegar which
equalizes the polymers that the starch gives out.
General Procedure
In order to make the tapioca starch into a bioplastic bag, one setup with the same
materials was prepared.
Step 1 : Add one tablespoon of tapioca starch to the pan, flatten it out in the spoon first.
Step 2 : Add four table spoon of distilled water to the tapioca starch in the pan.
Step 3 : Add one teaspoon of glycerine into the pan.
Step 4 : Lastly, add one teaspoon of vinegar to the pan as well.
Step 5 : Place the pan in the heat and stir the mixture for 90 seconds until it reaches a slimy, thick
and sticky consistency.
Step 6 : Remove from the pan and place it at a square mold to be cooled off for 5 days in room
Step 7 : When dried, compress the two sheets together and its three side to form a bioplastic bag.
Research Instruments Used
In order to perform the research, the instruments will be used:
Laboratory Test. These are the procedures that will be used to test the study's
Procedure of Data Gathering
The experimentation stage. This is where the researchers stick to the materials and
procedures of the study.
In this project, the experiment conducted in order to form
biodegradable plastic bag from tapioca starch. After multiple experiments, the plastic was
created. Production of developing the biodegradable plastic bag, biodegradation test of the
biodegradable plastic bag, elongation, burning test and visual inspection.
To test the biodegradation of the bioplastic bag , the biodegarable film was cut into 2.5cm
x 2.5cm. Then the film was buried in 5cm depth. Water will be sprayed at regular intervals. The
soil samples were taken and cleaned with distilled water at around a two-day interval.. After that
, the specimens was dried and the weight taken.
In elongation experiment of biodegradable plastic the biodegradable plastic was cut . The
initial length of the biodegradable plastic was measured and recorded. The biodegrable plastic
was stretched until it higher than initial length. The length of the plastic was calculated and
recorded once more.
A burning test was conducted for the visual observation of the color of the flame and the
time taken for the burning.
Statistical Treatment
The following statistical treatment were used to analyse and interpret data:
The t-test ( to decide whether the mean of one condition is really different from the mean of
another condition) will be used to determine if there is a significant difference between
commercial plastic bag and Tapioca starch bioplastic bag in terms of durability and mass
In this chapter the researcher aims to show the results and discussion of the data gathered
based on the instrument used.The experiment in this project was to make a biodegradable plastic
bag out of tapioca starch. After several experiments, the plastic was created. The plastic sample
produced may not achieving the ideal characteristic of a plastic but it is good in biodegradability
as it can be composted in just 6 days.The tensile strength test was used to demonstrate that
biodegradable plastic can be stretched in the same way that petroleum plastic can.
To demonstrate that we manufactured the biodegradable plastic, the biodegradable plastic
was moulded into several shape and dried until the moisture was removed and it became firm.
These findings backed up our theory, indicating that we were successful in producing
biodegradable materials from tapioca starch.
• Degradation test
The biodegradation test was recorded in the Figure 1 as the amount of glycerine against
the mass of the biodegradable plastic mould. Based on figure 1, it shown that the amount of
glycerine increases so the degradation of plastic also much quicker. The amount of glycerine
mixed is very important in making biodegradable plastic it gives elasticity and make the
biodegradable plastic easy to degrade. As the graph stated that Initial weight have been taken is
100 gram with different amount of glycerine that is 10ml, 20ml and 25ml was used in
biodegradable plastic. For the second day, the weight of the biodegradable plastic contains 10ml
glycerine as reduced 0.02g, 20ml glycerine as reduced 0.6g, and 25ml glycerine as reduced
0.11g. At the fourth day the weight taken for 10ml glycerine is reduced 2.13g, 20ml glycerine as
reduced 3.07, and 25ml glycerine as reduced 3.08g. As the Figure 1 shown the 20ml of glycerine
was reduced the amount of weight higher than the 25ml of glycerine but for the following fourth
day the 25ml of glycerine was recorded reduced higher than 20ml of glycerine. At the last day
the 10ml of glycerine was reduced 3.51g, 20ml of glycerine was reduced 5.11g, and the 25ml of
glycerine was reduced 6.50. As the Figure 1 shown the 25ml of glycerine is faster degrade than
the 20ml and 10 ml of glycerine. As the biodegradation test happens the darkening of the plastic
suggested decay.
•Elongation test
Figure 2 shows the elongation test on biodegradable plastic. As the figure 2 showing the
initial length of the biodegradable plastic is 4.5cm and after it been stretched it become 6.5
length where it is the maximum strength of the biodegradable plastic that has been made. The
strength of a strip of plastic is technically the force it can bear, under tension, per unit cross
sectional area of the film, without breaking. The “cross sectional area” is measured as the width
times the thickness. If want to do is increase the strength of your piece of plastic, the simplest
thing to do is make it thicker: this would allow the piece of plastic to bear a greater load under
tension without breaking. However, it would not increase the strength, which is a technical
property of a plastic that doesn’t change with the size and shape of the piece of plastic you are
considering. Tensile testing determines the amount of stress each material can sustain prior to
failure as well as the amount of elongation at the time of failure.
•Moulding test
Figure 3 shows the biodegradable plastic mould. Moulding is the process of
manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mould or
matrix. This it may have been made using a pattern or model of the final object. Moulding is the
process of forcing melted plastic in to a mould cavity. Once the plastic has cooled, the part can
be ejected. As the figure 3 showing the biodegradable plastic that has been made is mouldable
into various shape. Therefore, biodegradable plastic that have been made is a conventional
plastic where it can replace the petroleum based plastic that is most popular amount the plastic
•Biodegradability test (soil burial method)
The soil burial test provided a realistic environment where soil humidity, temperature,
types and the amount of microorganisms were less in control and changed with seasons. All the
tested films had same shape and size in order to avoid the effects of film’s shape on it
biodegradability. The loss of weight of the films monitored by means of sample collected from
the soil at regular time interval. The films were buried in the soil and the sample was removed
for evaluation at 2 days interval. It was observed that the degradation rate of the banana peel
starch films increased continuously with the increase in the number of the days. Through the
result obtained, it was observed that all the biodegradable bio-composite film expected for
degradation process completely within 90 days whereas the film degraded completely within 15
•Mechanical properties test
A biodegradable composite film must withstand the normal stress encountered during its
application. Elongation at break indicates the flexibility and stretch of the biodegradable
composite films which determined at the point when the composite film breaks under tensile
strength. The elongation at break value increased as the amount of starch increased. The
elongation at break values was increased due to the decreased of tapioca starch crystallinity in
the tapioca starch films. Moreover, the introduction of plasticizer (glycerol) into the films also
resulted in higher elongation values as these decrease the intermolecular attractive force,
improving the films flexibility and extensibility.
The researchers observed that some of the bio-plastics they made were somehow gave off moist.
Various elements or aspects must have leave these results to the bio-plastics. These include the
mixture throughout the baking process, the humidity of the air where the plastics were exposed,
and the time the plastic was exposed to heat, the high temperature must have prevented the
product being fully - cooked.
The excess banana peelings released a foul smell because it undergone the process of
fermentation. Because the paste was exposed to humid temperature, this must be the cause of the
plastic's oxidation and nitrogen absorption which is the gases present in the air and allowing the
plastic to produce its foul smell.
The film were prepared successfully by the mixing and casting method. The
characteristics of the films with different glycerine content (10ml, 20ml, and 25ml) were
evaluated using soil burial degradation test and manual. In soil burial degradation test, the
compactness of biodegradable composite films was destroyed as the degradation time increases.
A rapid degradation occurred for all the films in the initial 6 days, followed by 100% composting
within expected 90days. As conclusion the films produced from banana peels had potential
application to be used as food packaging because it can enhance the food quality and at the same
time can protect the environment.
The bio-plastic gave off an impression of being of surface of a normal plastic yet was of earthy
in shading. As indicated by premise, the researchers can express that a plastic can be framed
from tapioca starch and may serve as an option item for the plastics we are utilizing.
• Agarwal M., Koelling K., Chalmes J. (1998) Characterization of the degradation of
polylatic acid polymer in a solid substrate environment. Biotechnol. Prog. 14, 517–526
Ali, A., Yu, L., Liu, H., Khalid, S., Meng, L. and Chen, L. (2017) Preparation and
Characterization of Starch-Based Composite Films Reinforced by Corn and Wheat Hulls.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 134.
Biocomposite for Disposable Packaging Ware https://www.aidic.it/cet/13/32/286.pdf
Anon,(2018), Benefits of using Biodegradable
Plastics | Ecomaniac,www.ecomaniac.org, https://www.ecomaniac.org/benefits-of-usingbiodegradable-plastics/
Anon, (2020) Turning the Tide on Ocean Plastic
Pollution in the Philippines, Urban Links, https://urban-links.org/insight/turning-thetide-on-ocean-plastic-pollution-in-the-philippines/
Avella, M., Bogoeva-Gaceva, G., Buzarovska, A., Errico, M.E., Gentile, G. and
Grozdanov, A. (2008) Poly(Lactic Acid)-Based Biocomposites Reinforced with Kenaf
Fibers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 108, 3542-3551.
Bato Balani (2012), Biodegradable Plastic from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) Starch
Bioplastics 07/08 Processing parameters and technical characteristics—a global
overview,Bioplastics24.com., ISSN 1863-7299
Chávez, C.R., et al (2012), Sustainability of bio-based plastics: general comparative
analysis and recommendations for improvement, Journal of Cleaner Production Volume
23 Issue 1 Page 47-56
Davis G., & Song J. H. (2006) Biodegradable packaging based on raw
materials from crops and their impact on waste management. Ind. Crop. Prod. 23, 147–
De Groote, P. H., Devaux, J., & Godard, P. (2002). Effect of benzenesulfonamide
plasticizers on the glass‐transition temperature of semicrystalline polydodecamide.
Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 40(19), 2208-2218.
Entrepreneurindia, Production of Compostable and Biodegradable Bags from Cornstarch.
106-E, Kamla Nagar, Opp. Spark Mall, New Delhi-110007, India.
Ernita, L., Medyan, R., Syaubari, S.,( 2020) The Performance and Characterization of
Biodegradable Plastic from Tapioca Starch: Effect of Modified Chitosan , Jurnal
Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Volume 15 Issue 1 Page 45–52
European Bioplastics. "Bioplastics Facts and Figures." http://en.europeanbioplastics.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/publications/EuBPFactsFigures_bioplastics_201
3.pdf. 2013, accessed Mar2015
Gaurav, K., et al (2007) Compostability of Bioplastic Packaging
Materials: An Overview, Macromolecular Bioscience Volume 7 Issue 3 Page 255-277
Harnkarnsujarit, N., et al (2021) Chapter 7 - Bioplastic for Sustainable
Food Packaging , ScienceDirect Publisher: Academic Press Page: 203–277
Huda, M.S., Drzal, L.T., Mohanty, A.K. and Misra, M. (2008) Effect of Chemical
Modifications of the Pineapple Leaf Fiber Surfaces on the Interfacial and Mechanical
Properties of Laminated Biocomposite. Composite Interfaces, 15, 169-191.
Hu, R. and Lim, J. (2007) Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Completely
Biodegradable Hemp Reinforced PLA Composites. Journal of Composite Materials, 41,
Knutson, C. , et al (2019), Dyeing to Degrade: A Bioplastics Experiment for College
and High School Classrooms , Journal of Chemical Education Volume 96 Issue 11 Page
2565-2573 https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00461
Kumar, S., & Thakur, K. S. (2017). Bioplastics-classification, production and their
potential food applications. J Hill Agric, 8(2), 118-129
Masoomi, M., Tavangar, M. and Razavi, S.M.R. (2015) Preparation and Investigation of
Mechanical and Antibacterial Properties of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)/Chitosan Blend.
RSC Advances, 5, 79200-79206.
Mohee R., Unmar G. D., Mudhoo A., Khadoo P. 2008Biodegradability of
biodegradable/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
Waste Manag. 28, 1624–1629 [PubMed]
Mostafa, N. A., Farag, A. A., Abo-dief, H. M., & Tayeb, A. M. (2018). Production of
biodegradable plastic from agricultural wastes. Arabian journal of chemistry, 11(4), 546553.
Niranjana Prabhu, T. and Prashantha, K. (2016) A Review on Present Status and Future
Challenges of Starch Based Polymer Films and Their Composites in Food Packaging
Applications, Polymer Composites.
Ochoa, T.A., Almendarez, B.E.G., Reyes, A.A., Pastrana, D.M.R., Lopez, G.F.G.,
Belloso, O.M., et al. (2016) Design and Characterization of Corn Starch Edible Films
Including Beeswax and Natural Antimicrobials. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10,
R. Narayan, "Biobased & Biodegradable Polymer Materials: RationaleTechnology
ble%20FINAL%20REVISED.pdf, 2005, accessed Mar 2015.
Philippine Christian University, The Effectiveness of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta)
Starch in Creating Biodegradable Plastic , pdfcoffee.com https://pdfcoffee.com/theeffectiveness-of-cassava-manihot-esculenta-starch-in-creating-biodegradable-plastic-pdffree.html
Saharan, B. S., & Ankita, S. D. (2012). Bioplastics-for sustainable development: a
review. Int J Microbial Res Technol, 1, 11-23.
• Santana R.F., et al (2018), Characterization of starch-based bioplastics from jackfruit
seed plasticized with glycerol , Journal of Food Science and Technology Volume 55
Issue 1 Page 278–286
Scott G., Wiles D. 2001Programmed-life plastics from polyolefins: a new
look at sustainability.Biomacromolecules 2, 615–622
• Shikamoto, N., Ohtani, A., Leong, Y.W. and Nakai, A. (2007) Fabrication and
Mechanical Properties of Jute/PLA Composites. In: 22nd Technical Conference of the
American Society for Composites 2007, Composites, Enabling a New Era in Civil
Aviation, Curran Associates, Inc., Red Hook, 151.
• Shafqat, A., et al (2021) Synthesis and characterization of starch based bioplatics using
varying plant-based ingredients, plasticizers and natural fillers
Saudi Journal of
Sharmiladevi, S., et al (2019) Production of Bio Degradable Bags Using Cassava Starch ,
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation Page 553–559
S. S. Shrirakshaya (2020) Cellulose and Starch as the Source of Bioplastic , International
Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology Volume 8 Issue 6
Page 562
SPI Bioplastics Connect, "Bioplastic market update fast
facts."http://www.plasticsindustry.org/files/about/BPC/BC%20Newsletter%20%20September%202012%20-%20Final.pdf, 2012, accessed Mar 2015.
Sung, S.-Y., et al. (2013) Antimicrobial Agents for Food Packaging Applications. Trends
in Food Science & Technology, 33, 110-123.
Tokoro, R., Vu, D.M., Okubo, K., Tanaka, T., Fujii, T. and Fujiura, T. (2008) How to
Improve Mechanical Properties of PolyLactic Acid with Bamboo Fibers. Materials
Science, 43, 775-787.
Wahyuningtiyas, N. E., & Suryanto, H. (2017). Analysis of biodegradation of bioplastics
made of cassava starch. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science and Technology,
1(1), 24-31.
Wang, K.H., Wu, T.M., Shih, Y.F. and Huang, C.M. (2008) Water Bamboo Husk
Reinforced Poly (Lactic Acid) Green Composites. Polymer Engineering & Science, 48,
FROM TAPIOCA STARCH http://eprints.ums.ac.id/76520/3/Naskah%20Publikasi.p
Y A Ekawardhani et al (2021) Bioplastic Technology as
Zhao, Y.Q., Lau, K.T., Liu, T., Cheng, S., Lam, P.M. and Li, H.L. (2008) Production of a
Green Composite, Mixture of Poly(Lactic Acid) and Keratin Fibers from Chicken
Feathers. Advanced Materials Research, 47-50, 1225-1228.
Plagiarism Test