Uploaded by Michael Freeman Camat

Doing Philosophy 1

Introduction to the Philosophy of
the Human Person
The learner understands the meaning and
process of doing philosophy
The learner reflects on a concrete experience
in a philosophical way
Distinguish a holistic perspective from a
partial point of view (PPT11/12-Ia-1.1)
Science – the investigation is systematic. It
follows certain steps or it employs certain
- Organized body of knowledge
Natural light of reason – investigates things not
by using any other laboratory instrument or
investigative tools, neither on the basis of
supernatural revelation.
Study of all things – All other sciences concern
themselves with a particular object of
First cause or highest principle – principle is
that from which something proceeds in any
manner whatsoever.
-whatever is, it is /whatever is not, is not.
Ex. water – ice, rain is still water
-impossible to be and not to be at the same time
ex. Ang tama ay mananatiling tama at ang mali ay
mananatiling mali
-nothing exist without a sufficient reason for its
being and existence. Ex.ang tubig ay hindi lamang tubig. Ito ay
importante.ang tubig ay kailangan.nilikha ito dahil ito ay may silbi.hindi
nilikha ang tubig para sa wala.
What is the difference between
Knowledge is knowing
that tomato is a fruit
Wisdom is knowing
not to put it in a fruit
Philosophy is asking if
ketchup is a fruit shake.
Read and analyze
Teacher: Juan, what would you
like to be when you grow up?
• Juan: Ma’am, I want to be
• Teacher: Juan, you did not
understand my question.
• Juan: Ma’am, you do not
understand what life is all about!
• happiness and success. First happiness; Happiness
defined as “A state of well-being, joy, or contentment”
or “A state of good cheer and satisfaction, free of
anxiety, pain, or sorrow” . Almost any definition for the
word happiness is tied up with the word “state”. That
means whatever the thing that makes you happy –
drink, drug, job, sex, love or kids- it is just a state, which
means eventually it will vanish.
• Second, Success defined as “The accomplishment of an
aim or purpose“, believe it or not, success does not bring
happiness to your life it does not bring that big value that
can make your life worth living.
• Pythagoras – (570 BCE TO 495 BCE)
He hypothesized that everything in the universe
was governed by the principles of mathematics
and considered the discipline to be the
foundational model for philosophy.
• HERACLITUS (535 BCE to 475 BCE)
For him, change is a permanent
aspect of the human condition. “No
man ever steps in the same river
twice, for it's not the same river and
he's not the same man”.
Devoted himself to the study of the
causes of natural phenomena. He
was among the first to propose that
matter is composed of tiny particles
• DIOGENES of SINOPE (412 BCE to 323
He was a known advocate of living a
simple and virtuous life. For him, one
should not only talk of virtue but should
show it in words and actions.
• EPICURUS (341 BCE to 270 BCE)
He believed that philosophy could enable
man to live a life of happiness. His views
gave rise to Epicureanism - A school of
Philosophy w/c believes that wisdom and
simple living will result in a life free of fear
• SOCRATES (470 BCE to 399 BCE)
He was considered the foremost Philosopher
of ancient times. He made great
contributions to the field of Ethics.
- known critic of intellectuals during his time,
but he himself did not claim to be “wise” and
merely considered himself a “midwife” that
helped inquiring minds achieve wisdom.
- Socratic method – means of examining a
topic by devising a series of questions that
let the learner examine and analyze his
knowledge and views regarding the topic.
• PLATO (427 BCE to 347 BCE)
- a student of Socrates. His teachings
and writings were considered the
foundation of western philosophy.
-Theory of forms, proposes that
everything that exist is based on an idea
or template that can only be perceived in
the mind; these nonphysical ideas are
eternal and unchanging. He also focused
his studies on the ideal society and
proposed an ideal model of government
and society which is ruled by wisdom and
• ARISTOTLE (384 BCE to 322 BCE)
- Prominent student of Plato. However,
he disagreed with Plato’s Theory of forms
and took a different stance in interpreting
reality. For him, all ideas and views are
based on perception and our reality is
based on what we can sense and
-involved in a great variety of disciplines
such as Zoology, Psychology, Ethics and
- Deductive reasoning –process by w/c
Examples of Great Philosophers
Siddhartha Gautama Buddha
Four (4) Noble Truths
Dukkha - Life is unsatisfactory, disjointed, suffering.
Samudaya - There is a cause of suffering, which is
attachment or desire (tanha).
Nirodha - There is a cessation of suffering, which is to
eliminate attachment and desire.
Marga - The path that leads out of suffering is called
the Noble Eightfold Path.