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Freud, Erikson & Piaget

Module 4
Father of Psychoanalaysis and Psychosexual
(1856 to 1939) was the founding father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating mental illness
and also a theory which explains human behavior.
1) ID – the Pleasure Principle
 1st develop, basic instinct (seeking pleasure, avoiding pain and SUFFERING)
Pleasure Principle
 In our unconscious the past of our mind that we are not aware of is the source of all psychic
energy, making it the primary component of personality is the only component of personality
that is present from birth is entirely unconscious and includes instinctive and primitive
behavior is driven by the pleasure principle
EGO – the Reality Principle
Connected to reality
Reality Principle
Mostly in the conscious (we are aware of it) partly unconscious develops from the id and
ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world
is responsible for dealing with reality operates based on the reality principle
 Moral Principle
 Conscience (what is right from wrong)begins to emerge at around age five holds the
internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from our parents and society provides
guidelines for making judgments
Psychoanalysis - Freudian psychology which stresses importance of sex, childhood determinism and
unconscious thinking
The Unconscious - thoughts and wishes you are not aware of which influence conscious thoughts and
Repression - unconsciously pushing thoughts and wishes into the unconscious and keeping them
Sublimation - redirecting sexual and aggressive energy into social approved activity
Libido - sexual energy/sexual drive
Psychosexual growth stages - stages of sexual development that a human being normally goes through
Anxiety - a vague fear of what might happen next
Castration Anxiety - the child’s vague fear that his penis could be cut off
Types of Anxiety
Id – Neurotic Anxiety
Unconscious traumatic experience anxiety that originates in unconscious conflict and is maladaptive
in nature: It has a disturbing effect on emotion and behavior and also intensifies resistance to
treatment. Neurotic anxiety contrasts with realistic anxiety about an external danger or threat and with
moral anxiety, which is guilt posited to originate in the superego.
Superego – Moral Anxiety
anxiety contrasts with realistic anxiety about an external danger or threat and with moral anxiety,
which is guilt posited to originate in the superego.
Ego – Realistic Anxiety
(e.g. unfamiliar places)
This type of anxiety is considered a normal response to danger in the real world and serves to
mobilize resources to protect the individual from harm. Also called objective anxiety.
This types of anxieties is not clear-cuts
Only the Ego can feel the anxiety
Id – innate animal nature with sexual and aggressive drives
Ego – conscious, rational problem solving part of the personality
Superego – moral part of personality that condemns some behavior as sinful
(1 to 3 years)
All babies have to grow up some time, and when they do they graduate to the erogenous focus
of the anal stage.
The libido now becomes focused on the anus, and the child derives great pleasure from
defecating. The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their
wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world (i.e., their ego has
(3 to 6 years)
The child in this stage is focused on the stimulation of the genitals.
In the Phallic stage, gratification begins with autoeroticism. That means masturbation. But
our need for satisfaction soon turns to our parents, typically the parent of the opposite sex.
As this happens we find ourselves in one of Freud’s most controversial and strange
contributions to the study of personality, the Oedipus complex.
As adults, most of us would cringe at the thought of marrying someone like our mothers or
fathers, least of all having sex with them, but we’ve all known a little boy who wants to grow
up and marry his or her parent.
Freud observed that children in the phallic stage of personality shifted from self-gratification
to seeking gratification from their opposite sex parent. There is one problem the parent of the
same sex. And a resentment or childhood hate sometimes grows towards that parent of the
same sex.
 Approx 7-11 yrs old
 Freud says we are genrally ‘happy’ and pretty ‘normal’ at this stage
Approx 11+yrs
When we go through puberty we reach the genital stage of development and are obsessed
with our genitals
He said “we stay in this phase for the rest of our lives!”
Module 5
ERIK-ERIKSON (Post Freudian)
Psychosocial Development
Identity crisis
Post-Freudian Theory extended Freuds Psychosexual Development
Basic Assumptions
Ego – in contrast w Freud’s concept of Ego (being a diplomat with no power of its own), Erikson’s
conception of Ego is more powerful. It is a positive force that creates a self- identity or a sense of “I”
Ego helps us adapt to the various conflicts and crisis of life and keeps from
STAGE 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
Birth to age 1
Totally dependent on others
Caregiver meets needs: child develops
Caregiver does not meet needs: child
develops mistrust
Basic strength: HOPE
Belief our desires will be satisfied
Feeling of confidence
Balance. No to Spoil
STAGE 2: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Ages 3-5
Child expresses desire to take initiative
in activities
Parents punish child for initiative: child
develops feelings of guilt that will affect
self-directed activity throughout life
Basic strength: PURPOSE
Courage to envision and pursue goals
Balance between Autonomy, Shame &
Doubt: Basic Strength: WILL Power
STAGE 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
Oedipal complex – form of roleplaying
(gina test kong ano ang mga roles na
pwede ga gamapanan sa life nya amo ni
nakakaroon ng bahay-bahayan, nanaynanayan or so on)
Take ng role na gusto nya and kaya nya
Balance: Initaitaive &Gulit
Basic Stregnth: PURPOSE
STAGE 4: Industriousness vs. Inferiority
School Age (7-12 y/o) /Ages 6-11
Child develops cognitive abilities to
enable in task completion (school work,
Parents/teachers do not support child’s
efforts: child develops feelings of
inferiority and inadequacy
Basic strength: COMPETENCE
Exertion of skill and intelligence in
pursuing and completing task
STAGE 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Ages 12-18
Form ego identity: self-image
Strong sense of identity: face adulthood
with certainty and confidence
Identity crisis: confusion of ego identity
(trial and error kong ano ang gusto nya
or ayaw nya)
Basic strength: FIDELITY- faith in
one’s own chosen belief or ideology
(mapapanindigan mo ba ID sino ka
nang hindi o need ng guidance of other
people/ parents / peers)
Emerges from cohesive ego identity)
Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in
relationships w/ others
STAGE 6: Intimacy vs Isolation
Ages 18-35 (approximately)
Priority having your own
companion/love one/ jowa
Undertake productive work and
establish intimate relationships
Conflict; Intimacy (Syntonic) – abilidad
ng tao to fuse sariling identity nya sa iba
without fear losing his/her own identity
Isolation (Dystonic) – here mo ma
discover kong sino ka
Inability to establish intimacy leads to
social isolation
If na balance na the
Basic strength: LOVE
Mature love; commitment, sexual
passion, cooperation, competition and
also friendship (according to Erikson
dapat bestie kamo sang partner mo lol
Mutual devotion in a shared identity
Fusing of oneself with another person
STAGE 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
STAGE 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Ages 35-55 (approximately)
Productive in terms of work or having a
family, so nagpporoduce na ng
something in this stage
Basic Conflict:
Generativity: Active involvement in
teaching/guiding the next generation
(concern & naghehelp or build atleast
taking care of the next generation
ofcourse upod ka generativity is
pagegenerate din ng mga new ideas na
makakapag contribute pa ikakaganda ng
aking society) so, ang tigulang di nag
care for the next generation kumbaga
lahat nalang ng bagay hinihold nya
patunggo for her/himself the outcome is
magiging self-absorbed sya. Ang selfabsorption is wht we called stagnation;
which leads to “feeling entitled or even
feeling nya alam niya lahat) so the
tendency is ikokontol nya lahat, in the
process imbes na mag produce sya eh
nag ddestroy pa sya lalo ng ga other ppl
Stagnation involves not seeking outlets
for generativity
Basic strength: CARE
Broad concern for others
Need to teach others
Ages 55+ (old age) – if ang matanda
naging successful sa mga nauna nyang
stages mas tumataas ang chance na hindi
mag crumble/fall apart ang kanyang
identity so therefore, there will be
“integrity (strong pa)” if di siya naging
successful sa life nya ang tendency is
magkakaroon sya ng “despair” lahat ng
makikita ng isang matandang tao is
nakakapag “triggered” ng mga negative
emotions kasi nakikita nila ang family
nila ay mga kanya-kanya ng family,
hindi na sila pinapansin so therefore,
may large tendency na mahulog sa
Evaluation of entire life.
Integrity: Look back with satisfaction
Despair: Review with anger, frustration
Basic strength: WISDOM (situation
where someone has already “tanggap”
na ang buhay na meron siya dati is
“tapos na/nagawa na nya and kailangan
nya natong ewan reason dahil sana
harap nya na ang “kamatayan”
I mean not all people reach that kind of
wisdom since mahirap pag old age
Detached concern with the whole of life
It is important na every each maging
“successful” each stage
Big influence din ang caregivers,
teachers, friends, even peers or the
society as a whole
Module 6
Cognitive Development Theory
Jean William Fritz Piaget was a Swiss
psychologist known for his work on
child development. Piaget's theory of
cognitive development and
epistemological view are together called
"genetic epistemology". Piaget placed
great importance on the education of
August 9, 1896, Neuchatel, Switzerland
Pagbabago na nangyayari sa isang bata
Ex. Way niya about processing an
Develop and discover "Cognitive
Development"• He found put the
children do not think lesser than adult
but the think in different ways
He believed that these stages are always
in sequential order. This means, one
satge cannot come first without the prior
satges. He also believed that this satges
cannot be skippped and that it mark new
intellectual abilities upon reaching it.
3 Key Concept Basic Components of Piaget
Cognitive Theory
1. Scheme
• basic building black of intelligent
• Unit of knowledge
• Set of linked mental representation of
the world, which we use both to understand and
to respond to situations
• Way of information
• refers to the cognitive structures by
which individuals intellectually adapt to and
organize their environment. It is an individual's
way to understand or create meaning about a
thing or experience.
2. Assimilation
• is the process of fitting a new
experience into an existing or previously created
cognitive structure or schema.
•(new information and knowledge na
aadapt ng isang bata sa kanyang surroundings is
isinasama doon sa mga unang knowledge na
natutunan na nya)
3. Accommodation
• is the process of creating a new
• It is the changing or altering the
existing schema in the light of the new
• Means, papalitan ko na ang mga nauna
kong natutunan and then angg mga bagong
information na naadapt ko sa aking surroundings
ko, ayon yon mas ipapasok ko sa isip ko kasi
iyon yong mas accurate at katanggap-tangap at
mas tama
• is achieving proper balance between
assimilation and accommodation. When our
experiences do not match our schemata or
cognitive structures, we experience cognitive
disequilibrium. This means there is a
discrepancy between what is perceived and what
is understood
4 Stages of Cognitive Development
3) Concrete Operational Stage
• 7-11 years old
1) Sensorimotor Stage
• Birth - 2 years old
• this stage is characterized by the ability
of the child to think logically but only in terms
of concrete objects
• Sensory Perception - what they, see,
smell, hear and touch of the child
• Aware of external events
• Object Permanence - is the ability if
the child to know that an object still exists even
hen out of sight.
• Less focused on themselves
2) Preoperational Stage
• 2-6 or 7 years old
• Language Development
• Playing & Pretending
Symbolic Function – is the ability to
represent objects and events
Egocentrism – is the tendency of the
child to only see his point of view and to assume
that everyone also has his same point of view.
Centration – refers to the tendency of
the child to only focus on one aspect of a thing
or event and exclude other aspects.
Irreversibility – is the inability to reverse
children’s thinking.
Animism – is the tendency of children to
attribute human traits or characteristics ti
inanimate objects.
Transductive Reasoning - refers to the
pre-operational child’s type of reasoning that is
neither inductive nor deductive.
• Secrets
Decentering – refers to the ability of the
child to perceive the different features of objects
and situations
Reversibility – refers to the ability of the
child to follow certain operations.
Conservation – is the ability to know
that certain properties of objects like number,
mass, volume or area do not change even if there
is a change in appearance.
Seriation – refers to the ability to order
or arrange things in a series based on one
dimension such as weight, volume or size.
4) Formal Operational Stage
• 11-12 onwards
• at this stage, adult’s thinking becomes
more logical and can solve abstract problems
and can hypothesize
• Ability to think abstractly and
• Ready to reflect and differentiate what
is "right and wrong"
Hypothetical Reasoning – is the ability
to come up with different hypotheses about a
problem and to gather and weigh data in order to
make a final decision or judgment.
Analogical Reasoning – is the ability to
perceive the relationship in one instance and
then use that relationship to narrow down
possible answers in another similar situation or
Deductive Reasoning – is the ability to
think logically by applying general rule to a
particular instance or situation.