As we go through the power point, make sure you are reading through the multiple choice questions and answering them You will need the answers to these questions later!
Our behaviour is driven by unconscious motives Childhood is a critical period in development Psychological disorders are caused by problems in the unconscious mind These conflicts of the mind originate in childhood
Conscious: The part of the mind we are aware of – everyday thoughts and feelings Preconscious: Thoughts and memories not accessible at all times, but easily recalled Unconscious: The deep dark shameful part! Repressed thoughts, memories and feelings
You will be given the letter a, b or c a) b) Selfish, seeks pleasure at any cost, can be aggressive, risky Uptight, always follows rules, worries a lot, sensible c) Considerate, rational and well-balanced, compromise What job would your character be likely to do?
What are their friends like?
Would you want to be friends with them?
Which character; a, b or c would your character argue the most
Freud believed we had 3 different personality structures in our mind So we have character a, b and c in our mind all the time!!
Character a = id Character b = superego Character c = ego
ID: Animal instincts Works on the pleasure principle Present at birth – baby is completely selfish It wants to do what it wants and when it wants to
SUPEREGO: Moral part of psyche Acts like our conscience Wants to do what is right Develops around age 5
EGO: Linked with reality (everyday life) It is conscious and rational Based on the reality principle Develops by age 3 – we are aware of others Negotiates between id and superego
Normally, the id, ego and superego are in balance and the ego is in charge!
Balanced psyche: Freud believed that an imbalance due to unresolved conflicts causes mental disorders For example, conflicts cause anxiety between the id, ego and superego
Anxiety is caused when the there is an imbalance and the superego is in control e.g. anxiety and guilt – which may lead to depression or anxiety disorders
Risky behaviours which focus on pleasure occur when the id is in control e.g. sex, food, drink and drugs – can be reckless behaviour with no care and lead to Schizophrenia
There are a number of stages of childhood, during which the child seeks pleasure from a different ‘object’ To be psychologically healthy , we must successfully complete each stage Mental abnormality can occur if a stage is not completed successfully – the person becomes ‘ fixated’ Old Age Pensioners Love Guinness!
ORAL ANAL PHALLIC LATENT GENITAL Mouth – sucking & eating Anus – retaining & expelling faeces Genitals masturbation Social relationships – no sexual motivation Genitals – sexual intercourse Optimistic Pessimistic Retentive Expulsive Morality Gender identity No lasting consequences Must have successful completion of stages
This occurs during the Phallic stage According to Freud , the boy wishes to possess his mother and replace his father, who the child views as a rival for the mother's affections.
The stage for girls is known as the Electra complex in which girls feel desire for their fathers and jealousy of their mothers.
This is an important part of forming sexual identity; boys relate to their father and girls relate to their mother
Boys experience castration anxiety: Freud believed that as the child becomes aware of the physical differences between males and females, he assumes that the female's penis has been removed and that his father will also castrate him as a punishment for desiring his mother. According to Freud, this occurs when a girl realizes that she has no penis. "Girls hold their mother responsible for their lack of a penis and do not forgive her for their being thus put at a disadvantage,"
The constant disagreements between the id, the ego and the superego can lead to a lot of anxiety So the mind develops various methods of defending itself We all use defence mechanisms on a daily basis They are unconscious – we aren’t aware of what we’re doing But… if we over use them they can lead to mental abnormalities – psychosis?
Displacement: you redirect your feelings to another target It’s not my fault my marriage is over. It’s the newspapers’. And those women for selling their stories… And Cheryl’s for not being there enough… And my mum’s for not breastfeeding me. I hate them all!
Denial: You completely reject the thought or feeling My Ashley would never cheat on me…
DEPRESSION ANXIETY Aggression against the parents turned against self Fear of something (e.g. sex) and this is projected onto something else