# Condensed Chapter 9

```Chapter 9: STOICHIOMETRY
9.1 Information Given by Chemical Equations
AIM: ​To understand the _________________ and __________ information given in a
balanced equation
Write the equation…
1 molecule of propane (C​3​H​8​) reacts with 5 molecules of Oxygen to give 3 molecules of
carbon dioxide and 4 molecules of water
Can we say 1 ​mole ​of C​3​H​8 molecules
reacts with…?
​
Can we also say that 1 gram of propane reacts with…?
9.2 Mole-Mole Relationships
AIM: ​To learn to use a balanced equation to determine relationships between moles of
_______________and moles of _______________
Stoichiometry is the relationship between…
Reactants and other _______________
Reactants and _______________
Products and other _______________
Molar ratio
_______________from chemical equation
Write the equation...
Water decomposes to produce hydrogen and oxygen
How many moles of oxygen will be produced by the decomposition of 5.8 mol of water?
Given the following equation...
C​3​H​8​ + 5 O​2 ​ --&gt; 3 CO​2 +
​ 4 H​2​O
Calculate the number of moles of oxygen required to react exactly with 4.30 mol of
propane.
Calculate the number of moles of carbon dioxide formed when 4.30 mol of propane
react with 21.5 mol of oxygen
Homework 9.1 Information Given by Chemical Equations
1. What do the coefficients of a balanced chemical equation tell us about the
proportions in which atoms and molecules react on an individual (microscopic)
basis?
3. Although mass is a property of matter we can conveniently measure in the
laboratory, the coefficients of a balanced chemical equation are not directly
interpreted on the basis of mass. Explain why.
7. True or false? For the reaction represented by the chemical equation
2 H​2​O​2​ (aq) → 2H​2​O (l) + O​2​ (g)
if 2.0 g of hydrogen peroxide decomposes, then 2.0 g of water and 1.0 g of
oxygen gas will be produced.
Homework 9.2 Mole-Mole Relationships
13. For each of the following balanced reactions, calculate how many moles of
each product would be produced by complete conversion of 1.25 mol of the
reactant indicated in boldface. State clearly the mole ratio used for the
conversion.
a.
C​2​H​5​OH(l)​ + 3O​2 (g)​ → 2CO​2 (g) +
​ 3 H​2​O (g)
b.
​N​2​(g) + O​2 (g)​ → 2NO (g)
c.
2NaClO​2​(s) + Cl​2 (g)​ → 2ClO​2
d.
3 H​2​(g) + N​2 (g)​ → 2NH​3
(g)
+ 2 NaCl (s)
(g) ​
15. For each of the following equations, indicate how many moles of the second
reactant would be required to react exactly with 0.275 mol of the first reactant.
State clearly the mole ratio used for the conversion.
a.
Cl​2​(g) + KI​(aq)​ → I​2 (s) +
​ KCl (aq)
b.
Co(s) + P​4 (s)​ → Co​3​P​2
c.
Zn(s) + HNO​3 (aq)​ → ZnNO​3
d.
C​5​H​12​(l) + O​2 (g)​ → CO​2
(s)
+ H​2​ (g)
(aq) ​
+ H​2​O (g)
(g) ​
Warm-Up
Calculate the moles of water formed from 22.0 mol of propane
C​3​H​8​ + 5 O​2 ​ --&gt; 3 CO​2 +
​ 4 H​2​O
9.3 Mass Calculations
AIM:​ To learn to relate ​________________​of​ ​reactants and products in a chemical
reaction
2 Al + 3 I​2 ​ --&gt; 2 AlI​3
Suppose we have 35.0 g of Al. What mass of iodine should be weighed out to react
exactly with this amount?
C​3​H​8​ + 5 O​2 ​ --&gt; 3 CO​2 +
​ 4 H​2​O
What mass of oxygen will be required to react exactly with 96.1 g of propane?
9.4 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant
AIM: ​To learn to recognize the _____________________ in a reaction
To learn to use the limiting reactant to do _____________________ calculations
2 graham cracker halves, 6 chocolate squares, 1 marshmallow
6 graham cracker halves, 18 chocolate squares, 3 marshmallow
20 graham cracker halves, 60 chocolate squares, 1 marshmallow
Limiting Reactant
Limiting reactant :
N​2​ + 3 H​2 ​ --&gt; 2 NH​3
Suppose 25.0 kg of nitrogen gas and 5.00 kg of hydrogen gas are mixed
and reacted to form ammonia.
Calculate the mass of ammonia produced when this reaction is run to
completion
Homework 9.3 Mass Calculations
25. For each of the following equations, calculate how many grams of each
product would be produced by complete reaction of 12.5 grams of the reactant
indicated in boldface. Indicate clearly the mole ratio used for the conversation.
a.
TiBr​4​(g) + ​H​2​(g)​ → Ti​ (s) +
​ HBr (g)
b.
SiH​4​(g) + NH​3 (g)​ → Si​3​N​4
c.
NO(g) + ​H​2 ​(g)​ → N​2
+ H​2​ (g)
(s) ​
+ H​2​O (l)
(g) ​
d.
Cu​2​S​(s) → Cu​ (s) ​+ S (g)
Homework 9.4 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant
47. For each of the following chemical equations, suppose 10.0g of each
reactant is taken. Show by calculation which reactant is the limiting reagent.
Calculate the mass of each product that is expected.
a.
C​3​H​8​(g) + O​2 (g)​ → CO​2 (g) +
​ H​2​O (g)
b.
Al(s) + Cl​2 (g)​ → AlCl​3​ (s)
c.
NaOH(s) + CO​2 (g)​ → Na​2​CO​3
+ H​2​O (l)
d.
NaHCO​3​(s) +HCl​ (aq)​ → NaCl (aq) + H​2​O (l) + CO​2
(s) ​
(g)
Warm-Up
Write the complete balanced equation that represents the following statement…
When bare copper wire is placed in a solution of silver nitrate, a replacement reaction
occurs in which silver metal and copper(II)nitrate solution are produced
1. If 1.5 grams of silver nitrate reacts with a 1.0 gram copper wire, how much silver will
be produced?
9.5 Percent Yield
AIM: ​To learn to calculate _______________ as a percentage of __________________
Percent Yield
Percent yield = ________________
Actual Yield:
Theoretical Yield:
2 H​2​ + CO --&gt; CH​3​OH
Calculate the theoretical yield of methanol when 68.5 kg of CO is reacted
with 8.60 kg of H​2
If 3.37 x 10​4​ g are actually produced, what is the percent yield?
Homework 9.5 Percent Yield
61. According to his prelaboratory theoretical yield calculations, a student’s
experiment should have produced 1.44 g of magnesium oxide. When he
weighed his product after reaction, only 1.23 g of magnesium oxide was present.
What is the student’s percent yield?
65. What is the theoretical mass of xenon tetrafluoride that should form when
130. g of xenon is reacted with 100. g of F​2​? What is the percent yield if only 145
g of XeF​4​ is actually isolated?
Xe(g) +
2F​2​(g) →
XeF​4​(s)
Mixed Review
69. Suppose 5.25 g of iron filings is combined with 12.7 g of sulfur. What is the
theoretical yield of iron(II) sulfide?
Fe(s) +
S(s) →
FeS(s)
70. When the sugar glucose C​6​H​12​O​6​, is burned in air, carbon dioxide and water
vapor are produced. Write the balanced chemical equation for this process. And
calculate the theoretical yield of carbon dioxide when 1.00 g of glucose is burned
completely.
71. What is the theoretical yield of Cu​2​S when 31.8 g of Cu(s) is heated with
50.0 g of S? Assume only Cu​2​S is produced in the reaction. What is the percent
yield of Cu​2​S if 40.0 g of Cu​2​S can be isolated from the mixture.
2 Cu(s) + S(s) → Cu​2​S(s)
79. Using the average atomic masses from the periodic table, calculate how
many moles of each substance the following masses represent.
a. 4.65 g of C​2​H​5​OH
b. 7.94 g of barium nitrate
89. For each of the following unbalanced chemical equations, suppose ​25.0​ g ​of
each reactant is used. Show by calculation which reactant is limiting. Calculate
the theoretical yield in grams of the product in boldface.
a. C​2​H​5​OH(l) + O​2 (g)
→ ​CO​2​(g) + H​2​O(l)
​
b. N​2​(g) + O​2 (g)
→​ NO​(g)
​
91. For each of the following unbalanced chemical equations, suppose ​25.0 ​mol
of each reactant is used. Show by calculation which reactant is limiting.
Calculate the theoretical yield in grams of the product in boldface.
a. NaClO​2​(aq) + Cl​2 ​(g) → ​ClO​2​(g) + NaCl(aq)
b. H​2​(g) + N​2 ​(g) → ​NH​3​(g)
```