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Psychology Notes

Negative vs Positive Correlations
- The STRONGER correlation is closer to negative or positive 1.00
- So -0.8 is a stronger correlation than +0.4
- Positive Correlation is when if one value goes up so does the other
- Negative is if one goes up the other goes down
Experimental Research
Experimental groups vs Control group
Treatment; Manipulation implemented by the experimenter
- Experimental gets a treatment; control group does not
Independent Variable is the one that is manipulated by the experimenter (aka what is changed)
Dependent is the variable that is measured (aka the result of such change)
Random assignment to condition
- Randomly picking which people are part of the experimental group or control group
Significant Outcome; Meaningful results
- Makes it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their
Replicated Research; Research that is repeated.
Ethics; (don’t use the slides for this part :)
Module 6; Ethics in psychological research
- APA (breathe, not journalism APA)
- American Psychological Association sets ethical guidelines for animal and human
psychological research
- IRB; review board that approves or denies requests for experiments; both animal and
human. IRB kinda enforces the APA on a local case by case basis
1. Informed Consent
You are told exactly what you’re getting yourself into and you agree
2. Deception
You can somewhat lie or lie by submission to a degree in order to get genuine
results but you MUST debrief them
3. Debrief
You just tell your subjects whats up and tell them the entire truth of what went
down what was true and untrue and the purpose
4. Withdrawal
You have the right to straight up say “I don't want to do this any longer” and can
walk out any minute at all. If you are debriefed and say I don’t like it, they cant use your
5. Confidentiality
Cannot use your real name until after you’re dead. You are given a number or
code name instead
6. Protection from Physical and Mental harm
You cannot physucally harm anyone and you don’t purposely and you try not to
fuck them up for life.
Animal Guidelines
1. They have to be in appropriate living conditions
2. Justification for research
3. Minimize pain and suffering
Structure of the Neuron
Neurons cell body with a nucleus
Glial cells provide nourishment to neurons and insulate them, repair damage and
support neural functions (the fuckers with the myelin sheaths and therefore nodes of ranvier)
Resting state -70mV
Action potential threshhold at -50mV
Psycho-active drugs; affect a persons emotions, perceptions, and behavior
Addictive drugs produce a biological or psychological dependence in the user
4 categories of psychoactive drugs
Opiates (narcotics)
[OPiates- codeine, heroin, morphine, oxycodone]
[Depressants- alcohol, barbiturates, rohypnol (date-rate/roofies)]
[Hallucinogens- marijuana, PCP, LSD]
[Stimulants- caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, and meth]
4 types of learning
- Habituation; getting used to something ie dogs barking
- Classical Conditioning; associating two or more stimuli ie mcdonalds/golden arches and
hunger or gators colors literally anywhere
- Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist never intended to do psychological research, won a
nobel prize for digestion.
He’s really known for his experiments on basic learning processes.
- Unconditioned Stimulus; things we know without learning ie mouth watering when
you smell food.You can’t learn or control your saliva, your body just knows that it
needs to start prepping for digestion since there is food present (Unconditioned
- Neutral Stimulus; something that isn’t a natural unconditioned stimuli, such as a
bell ringing and (not) causing salivation.
- Conditioning in action; ring the bell -> deliver food -> salivation begins. Eventually
the bell ringing starts the salivation process even before the food is brought out
because it now signals something. Now the bell is a Conditioned
- Extinction- Unlearning the relation ie stop giving the dog food after the bell and
eventually he will no longer associate the bell with food.
- After extinction it gets easier to recondition
- Spontaneous recovery; reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response
after a period of rest with no further conditioning.
- Little Albert; loud noise=UCS, white rat=ns, fear=UCR
- Loud noise+White rat; white rat=CS, Fear=CS
- Conditioned Taste Aversion; me with chicken salad chick, got sick eating there
once and I’ve never gone back since and I never want to try it again. Only takes
one try.
- Classical conditioning is also relevant to sales/marketing. Buying a product
because of the name/model. Ie. Buying some ugly overpriced yeezy’s because
- Stimulus Generalization; stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. Ie getting
bitten by a german shepherd and then being afraid of dogs or large dogs.
- Stimulus Discrimination; ability to differentiate between stimuli. Ie being afraid of
just german shepherds.
- Operant Conditioning; E.L. Thorndike’s law of effect. Rewards and punishments
- Observational learning
- The system by which we retain information and bring it to mind.
- Three Processes
- Encoding; converting information into a form that is usable in memory
- Storage; retaining information in memory
- Retrieval; bringing stored information to mind
Two memory models
- 3 Stages; Serial Processing; info must travel in this order
- Fleeting
- Iconic- Visual lasts about half a second
- Echoic- Auditory about 2 seconds
Short Term
- Temporary Holding Tank of information
- Lasts about 30 seconds
- Maintenance rehearsal aka repetition which can increase the duration of it
- Capacity 7 (plus or minus 2) {So like 5-9} Chunks
- Chunks are just groupings of information
- Like a phone number
- 407- 496-4330 is 3 chunks
- 4073819757 is 10 chunks
- Elaborative Rehearsal: Links new information to information already
stored in memory. Relatively unlimited
- When you retrieve information you pull it out of long term and into short
Long Term
Two Types
- Explicit which is conscious
Semantic (knowledge and fears)
- Autobiographical (your life)
- Both are stored in temporal and frontal lobes
- Implicit which is unconscious
- Procedural (Motor Skills)
- Emotional; Stored in the Amygdala
- Serial Position Effect
- Ability to recall information in a list depends on where in the list
and item appears
- Primacy effect
- Recency effect
- Working memory
- Adaption of short term memory
- Actively manipulates information
- Replaces short term memory
- Involves parallel processing of information