Hazards A sudden rapid shaking of the ground caused by the shifting of rocks beneath the earth’s surface. They strike suddenly, without warning, and can occur at any time of the year – day or night. before Community Level Make a list/map of the infrastructure in the area which will be at high risk during an earthquake, open spaces for evacuation, emergency service providing agencies, etc. Community Level Community Level Form local community volunteer groups and organize for them on fire safety first aid and emergency search and rescue. Community Level Initiate local disaster management level. Take initiative for raising awareness to the whole community. School Level Organize different task forces consisting of the trained students and teachers. School Level Practice Drop-Cover-Hold and evacuation drill ensuring participation of all students. Initiate school based disaster management level. School Level School Level Organize awareness raising events for students on regular basis such as drawing or writing and debate competition on the theme of earthquake preparedness. School Level Identify the structural and nonstructural risks of the school and take necessary measures to reduce the risks. School Level Ensure comprehensive preparedness and risk reduction action plan and implementation through the School Management Committee. School Level Update the school disaster management plan on regular basis and ensure an inclusive planning approach considering the persons with disability. during Stay indoors until shaking stops and you are sure it is safe to exit. If on the ground floor of an adobe house with a heavy roof – exit quickly. Find a clear spot away from overhead hazards. until the shaking stops. Stay outside and remain in open areas away from hazards. If in a multi-storey building – be careful both during and after the shaking. If in a vehicle,- go to a clear location and pull over. after After the shaking stops • Expect aftershocks • Check for damage and stay out of damaged buildings. • Extinguish flames and small fires. • Look for and prevent fire hazards. • Out on sturdy shoes before moving cautiously to evacuate. • Don’t run. Don’t talk. Don’t push. Assist others to evacuate. • Take evacuation “lifeline kit” when evacuating. Coastal Areas • Move away from water to higher ground. • Do not return to the shore as waves may continue to arrive for hours. Coastal Areas Stay informed and listen to official tsunami alerts. Prepare to evacuate. Coastal Areas If the shaking of a strong earthquake last 20 seconds or longer, or if you see receding waters at the shoreline – do not wait for an official tsunami warning to take action. Mountanous Areas • Stay alert. • Watch and listen for: Falling rocks and other debris. Unusual sounds like cracking trees. Sudden increase/decrease in water streams. Local dams/dykes or levees prone to damage. Mountanous Areas • Tune into your early warning system. • If there is a landslide or flood warning – leave if it is safe to do so. Reducing risks • Fasten bookcases/display cabinets and other tall and heavy furniture to the wall. • Secure gas and electrical appliances. • Install latches on cabinets and drawers. • Anchor computers and televisions. • Secure fire extinguishers. • Move beds away from windows. • • • • • • Know the area. Solid foundations. Leave sufficient space. Avoid unstable foundations. Avoid known earthquake faults. Build and maintain your building with earthquakes in mind. • Rigorously follow anti-seismic building codes for you area. • Appropriate foundation • Simple shapes • Even distribution of structural systems. • Use the appropriate quality and quantity of materials. • Protect your building from water and moisture damage. • Review the overall safety of your building periodically. • Be aware of what can help • When possible, consult a qualified engineer or skilled professional. • Check for any building adaptations or alterations that might have adversely affected safety of the structure. • Implement retrofit.