1. 4.05% 2. 3. (a) 190 GPa (b) 350 MPa (c) 500 MPa 4. Material toughness is most commonly measured by an impact test known as a Charpy Vnotch test (CVN). In standard CVN testing, a 10 mm x 10 mm square bar has a small "V"shaped notch machined on one face. 5. toughness: salt<rubber<PET plastic<steel<diamond Modulus: salt<rubber<PET plastic<steel<diamond 6. Modulus is how a component resists elastic deformation when a load is applied. Hardness is resistance to localized surface deformation. 7. 1. Low carbon steels - soft, weak ex. tin cans 2. Medium carbon steels - Low hardenability, medium strength, ductility and toughness ex. machine parts 3. High carbon steel - High hardness, strength, low ductility ex. hammers 4. high alloy steel - high strength, toughness, hardness, and creep resistance at specific heat treatment temperature ex. cutting tools drills 8. (1) Iron ores exist in abundant quantities. (2) Economical extraction, refining, and fabrication techniques are available. (3) The alloys may be tailored to have a wide range of properties. 9. put the coke, limestone, and Iron Ore inside the blast furnace. Hot air is blown from the bottom of the furnace and coke is brunt. Because of the burning of coke in the process will be oxidised to CO. The CO and heat move to the upper part and the iron oxides coming from the top are reduced in steps to FeO. Limestone is also decomposed to CaO which removes silicate impurity of the ore as slag then the slag separates out from iron. 10. Foring is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. Investment casting is a manufacturing process in which a wax pattern is coated with a refractory ceramic material. The powder-metallurgy (PM) process involves mixing elemental or alloy powders, compacting the mixture in a die, and then sintering, or heating, the resultant shapes in an atmosphere-controlled furnace to metallurgically bond the particles.