```Constructive /Destructive Forces
Sponge 1. Day 2
Inner Structure of the Earth
Student name___________________
Teacher _______________________
Fill in the blank lines with the layers of the Earth
CRUST
MANTEL
OUTER CORE
INNER CORE
1. What is true about the earthʼs crust?
2. What is true about the mantle of the earth?
T or F
The Earthʼs crust is made of
rock.
T or F
The mantle is a solid piece of
rock.
T or F
The Earthʼs crust is thick melted rock.
T or F
The mantle is thick liquid rock.
T or F
The Earthʼs crust is thicker than the
inner layers.
T or F
The mantle is the outside layer of
the earth.
T or F
The Earthʼs land forms are found on
Earthʼs crust.
T or F
The mantle is hotter than the crust.
Sponge 2. Day 3
Landforms
Fill in the blank lines with T (true) or F (false)
T
F
T
T
1. Mountains can be found on the ocean floor, deep under the sea.
2. The outer layer of the earth is called the core.
3. The outer layer of the earth floats on the mantle.
4. The continental crust is thicker but of lighter rock than the oceanic crust.
5. Draw lines connecting the picture with the correct definition and then to the name.
Use the mountain range as an example of how to do the rest.
ICE
A large stream of water usually
emptying into a lake or the ocean.
A river
A flat area of rock with steep sides
smaller than a plateau.
A cave
A long narrow valley with steep
sides.
A valley
A large mass of ice that flows over
land.
A volcano
A very large hole or open space
underground or in the side of a cliff
A glacier
An opening in the Earthʼs surface
through which melted rock, ash and
gases can flow out of the inside of
the Earth.
A Canyon
A group of mountains close to one
another.
A mountain range
A long lowland between mountains
or hills.
A mesa
Sponge 3. Day 4
More Landforms
1. As in your sand box landscape, this drawing shows many of the landforms we are
learning about. From the word bank, write the name of each landform by the arrow that
points to it.
MOUNTAINS
GLACIER
HILLS
CANYON
VALLEY
RIVER
WORD BANK
DELTA
ISLAND
Hills
Mountains
Glacier
Canyon
Ocean
Valley
Delta
Island
River
OCEAN
Sponge 4. Day 5
Earthʼs crust
1. What does this map show about the Earthʼs crust?
a. that the Earthʼ s surface is flat
b. that the Earthʼs crust is a solid
c. that the Earthʼs crust is made up of big pieces of rock called plates
d. how the ocean currents move
2. The arrows show
a. the direction the plates move
b. the direction the winds blow
c. the direction the ocean currents move
d. lines of longitude on a map of the Earth
3. Which of these drawings of plates shows them pushing into each other? (circle the correct choice)
a.
b.
c.
Sponge 5. Day 6
More Earthʼs crust
1. Mark true or false
T or F
The Earthʼs crust is made up of huge solid rock pieces called plates.
T or F
The Earthʼs crust is made of molten (melted ) rock called magma.
T or F
The plates of the Earthʼs crust float on molten (melted) rock called magma.
T or F
T or F
T or F
The plates of the Earthʼs crust move around slowly.
The plates of the Earthʼs crust never move.
The plates of the Earthʼs crust sometimes very slowly push together.
T or F
The plates of the Earthʼs crust sometimes move away from one another.
T or F
The molten rock in the mantle can never break though the crust.
T or F
When there is a hole or crack in the crust of the Earth the molten rock in the mantle
comes to the surface and hardens into solid rock.
When magma flows onto the surface of the Earth, it is called lava.
T or F
2. The plates of the Earthʼs crust move in three ways. Label the diagrams below that show the
ways that places can move.
.
Two plates can
MOVE APART
Two plates can
SLIDE PAST EACH
OTHER
Two plates can
PUSH TOGETHER
3.. Plate movement can cause
a. volcanos, mountains and earthquakes
c. deltas and glaciers
d. mesas, canyons, and plains
n
Sponge 6. Day 7
Earthʼs Plates
1.. The red hot, thick oozy material that lies just under the Earthʼs crust is called:
a. liquid iron
b. batter
c. magma
d. mantle
2. When two oceanic plates pull apart as shown in the diagram, what would you expect to
happen?
a. The ocean water would get cooler
b. magma would ooze out
c. a deep trench would form between the two plates
d. nothing, the plates are too big to pull apart
3. What would be the result of oceanic plates pulling apart?
a. The escaping magma would pile up
b. The magma would cool and turn into rock
c. Over a very long time mountains will build up
d. all of the above are correct
Sponge 7. Day 8
Earthʼs Plates
1. What is happening in this diagram?
a. Two continental plates are colliding.
b. The plate with lighter crust is being
forced down.
c. An oceanic plate is being forced under
a continental plate
d. Two oceanic plates are moving apart.
2. This ia a diagram showing two continental plates
pushing together. Which of the following would not
occur as a result.
a.
b.
c.
d.
A chain of mountains will form
A deep trench will form
Earthquakes will occur
The land on both plates+ is lifted.
Sponge 8. Day 9
Review
Yesterday we learned that the hands could bu used
to represent the plates of the earthʼs surface.
A.
1. Drawing “A” on the right is how we represented:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Oceanic plates pulling apart.
Two plates sliding past one another.
A continental plate going under an oceanic plate.
Mountains being formed as plates push together.
2. Drawing “B” on the right is how we represented:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Oceanic plates pulling apart.
Two plates sliding past one another.
A continental plate going under an oceanic plate.
Mountains being formed as plates push together.
B.
3.. What do the raised thumbs in drawing “B” represent?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Magma pushing up between the plates.
Nothing, they are just part of the hands.
They show the force that is separating the plates.
Large rocks that are keeping the plates apart.
4... In drawing “C” we represent two plates sliding past one
another that get hung up on something that does not let them
move (our thumbs).. By continuing to push harder, we can cause
the thumbs to break free. If this happened between two of
Earths plates, what would likely happen?
a.
b.
c.
d.
C.
Volcanos.
Hurricanes.
Earthquakes.
5. Drawing “D” on the right represents:
a. A continental plate sliding under an oceanic plate.
b. Two continental plates pushing together making mountains.
c. Two oceanic plates separating causing Earthquakes.
d. An oceanic plate sliding under a continental plate.
6. In drawing “D”, the finger sticking out from the left hand represents:
.
a. Volcanos
b. Earthquakes.
c. High plateaus.
d. Deep canyons.
D.
Sponge 9. Day 10
More review
1. What is created when magma pushes through the crust and lava
flows onto the land?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a glacier is formed
a trench is formed
a continental plate is formed
new land is formed.
2.. New mountains can be created when:
a. When a volcano erupts at a hot spot.
b. When two continents collide
c. When two oceanic plates move apart and the magma oozes out or erupts
from a volcano.
d. All of the above.
Sponge 10. Day 11
Weathering and Erosion
1 Over time, millions or even thousands, of years, the earthʼs surface is constantly changing.
(True) (False)
2 New land can be created by lava flowing onto the land. Likewise, landforms can be
broken down by the process of:
a. Deposition
b. Volcano eruptions
c. Landform uplifting
d. Weathering:
3. Newly formed mountains generally have sharp pointed peaks like the one shown in diagram “A”.
After millions of years, these sharp peaked mountain become rounded and look more like the
mountains in diagram “B”. What causes mountains as they age to become smaller and more rounded?
a. earthquakes and volcanos
b. weathering and erosion
A.
c. magma cooling on the earth surface.
d. ultraviolet rays from the Sun and Moon
B.
4. The breaking of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces, is the definition of:
a. Deposition
b. Volcano eruptions
c. Landform uplifting
d. Weathering:
Sponge 11. Day 12
Weathering and Erosion
1. Water trapped inside cracks in rocks may freeze. Frozen water expands and can cause:
a. the rocks to become harder
b. the pressure of the magma under the crust to increase.
c. earthquakes to occur
d. rocks to break apart
2.
Plants are growing in this rock. When
plants, particularly trees, grow in rocks
their roots cause
a.
b.
c.
d.
the rock to break into smaller pieces
the rocks to expand and grow bigger
the rock to become smoother
the rock to explode
3. At one time the land shown in the diagram was flat as in diagram A.. What has
caused the change shown in diagram B?
a. earthquakes occurring
b. volcanos erupting
Diagram A
c. a river flowing over the rock
d. glaciers moving over the rock
Diagram B
4. What landform results in diagram B?
a. Desert
b. Delta
c. Mountain
d. Canyon
Sponge 12. Day 13
Erosion
1. This diagram shows a deep canyon like the
Grand Canyon. What caused the Grand
Canyon to form?
a. weathering and erosion by water and
wind
b. earthquakes
c. two of Earthʼs plates separating
d. deposition
2 How long did it take take for the Grand
Canyon to form?
a
b.
c.
d.
less than 100 years
hundreds of years
thousands of years
millions of years
Sponge 13. Day 14
To weathering and erosion,
1. Match the word with its definition:
c
______
1. weathering
a. rock, soil or shell pieces carried by wind, water or ice and later deposited.
b
______
2. eroding
d
______ 3. deposition
a
______
4. sediment
b. moving rock pieces or soil by water, wind or ice
c. the breaking down of rock into smaller pieces by wind, water or ice.
d. when broken up rock or soil is dropped in a new place
2 The mouth of the Mississippi River looks something like this. Sand and soil
from up stream is carried in the fast moving water, but when the water slows
down, these sediments are dropped out causing a delta to form What is THE
the name given to this process?
a
b.
c.
d.
Deposition
Weathering
Erosion
Watering
Sea
Sponge 14. Day 15
soil
1 Soil is made up of::
a.
b.
c.
d.
Weathered rock
Humus (remains of dead plants and animals)
Water and air
All of the above.
2. What are the four main types of soil?
a. sand, silt, clay &amp; humus
b. topsoil, subsoil, weathered rock, bedrock
c. pebbles, gravel, sand, clay
d. weathered rocks, mineral, water , air
3 On the line, arrange these 5 kinds of weathered rock from the biggest to smallest
particles: clay, gravel, sand, boulders, silt
1. BOLDER
*
Then circle the pieces of weathered rock that are types of soil.
2. GRAVEL
3. SAND
4.
SILT
5. CLAY
LARGEST
SIZED
PARTICLES
smallest
sized
particles
Sponge 15. Day 16
observe sand, dry clay, wet clay and humus.
clay
humus
40 mL of water
15 mL of water
50 mL of water was added to each funnel
1. . The results of the experiment above comparing clay and sand show that :
a. humus retained more water than clay
b. sand dissolved in water
2. Which soil would be best for growing plants?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Sand
Humus
Clay
A mixture of sand, clay and humus
c. clay retained more water than humus
d. clay dissolved in water
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