Biodiversity So what are the things made from and how are the parts put together? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism Organ and tissue Cells Organelles Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, Nucleic acid Cells come in 2 categories: Prokaryotes: smaller, simpler type of cell that does not have a membranebound nucleus. OR Unicellular organisms that does not contain membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes: larger, complex type of cell that does have a membrane-bound nucleus. OR Uni/multicellular organism that contains membrane-bound organelles. Three Domains of Tree of Life: Bacteria • Consists of all the eubacteria Archaea • Consists of archaeabacteria Eukarya • Consists of protists, fungi, animals and plants •Halphiles •Thermophiles Archaea •Animals •Fungi •Plants •Chromists •Alveolates •Rhodophytes •Flagellates Eukaryota Bacteria •Cyanobacteria •Heterotrophic bacteria Animalia: The animal kingdom is the largest kingdom with approximately 943, 434 described and catalogued Plantae: Contains all the plants – flowering plants, mosses, and ferns. Approximately 298,000 species described and catalogued. Protista: Slime molds and algae. All microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, not animals, not plants and not fungi are Protista. Approximately 8,118 species described and catalogued. Fungi: Mushrooms, mold and mildew. Fungi are organisms that were once confuse with plants. However, unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. Most obtain their food from plant parts decaying in the soil. Eubacteria: Most eubacteria are helpful. Some produce vitamins and foods like yogurt. However these eubacteria, Streptococci pictured below can cause step throat. Archaebacteria: Found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents under conditions with no oxygen or highly acidic environments. Figure 1 Streptococci Taxonomy: Classification of Living Things Taxonomy: Science of naming organisms and assigning them to groups Taxonomic Levels: Hierarchical system used for classifying There are 7 levels of classification included: kingdom, phylum, class ,order, family, genus and species Species: Organisms same in shape and structure. Reproduce with one another. The offspring also have to be able to reproduce with one another. Present system of classification is based on an organism’s physical and structural features. The more features the closer their relationship. Binomial nomenclature (2-name system): Grouped organisms according to their structural similarities. Scientists worldwide refer to organisms by the same name (scientific name). Name in Latin, the language of scholars in Europe at the time. Linnaean system of classification: Binomial nomenclature used. Uses structural similarities to group organisms Uses Latin names of organisms. Has to parts: Genus name First letter capitalized Italicized Species name All lower case letters Italicized All organisms that are a part of the same genus have many common characteristics. Grouping start out general with the Kingdoms and become very specific ending in Species. Phylogeny: reconstruction of evolutionary relationships in a “family tree” 9format.