Unit 1 – Chemistry Know how to read the Periodic Table of Elements Where are the metals located on the periodic table? they are located at the far-left side in columns 1 to 12 1. Where are the non-metals located on the periodic table? They are located at the far- right side in columns 13-18 Rows are called: Periods Columns are called: Groups 2. On the following diagram: What does the 6 represent: The six represent: - Atomic number - Number of protons What does 12.011 represent: The atomic mass of the element 3. Complete this chart for the following elements Element Atomic Number 4. 5. Neutrons Protons Electrons Valance Electrons Al 13 13 13 13 3 B 5 6 5 5 3 Ne 10 10 10 10 8 S 16 16 16 16 6 Define: a. Ions: a positively or negatively charged atom, of which the atom losses or gains electrons b. Cations: Positively charged ion c. Anions: Negatively charged ion d. Polyatomic ion: A stable group containing several atoms, and acting as one charged particle Determine the ionic charge that the following elements would have Lithium +1 Sodium +1 Nitrogen -3 Fluorine -1 Beryllium +2 Carbon -4 Iodine -1 How can you tell when you have an ionic compound? Ionic compounds have a metal and a non-metal as its second element. They have a transfer of valence electrons to be come stable, which is called ionic bonding. The metal will lose its electron, and become a cation ion-positive. And the non-metal will gain its electrons from the metal, and become an anion -negative. Therefore, both atoms are now stable. Ionic compound are also electrolytes, the ions separated when dissolved in water 7. How can you tell when you have a molecular compound? Molecular compounds consist of two non-metals covalently bonded, where they share their valence electrons until each atom has 8 electrons -counting the shared ones. There is an attraction of the nuclei to each others electron, and are repulsive due to the same charges, so the atoms are in a “tug of war” 8. How can you tell if you have an acid? You can tell by the formula: - There is a hydrogen ion in front, or the word hydro Testing: - Or by using the litmus paper 9. How can you tell if you have a base? You can tell by the formula: - There is a hydroxide ion in the formula - They are ionic compounds - Sometimes contain bicarbonate or hydrogen carbonate Testing: - Litmus paper - Universal indicator 10. Name the following ionic compounds: ……… 6. a) b) c) d) e) K2S ____________ _________________________________ Ag2O _________________________________ __________________________________ CH4 __________________________________ ______________________________ AlBr3 _________________________________ _________________________________ HNO2(aq)_______________________________ __________________________________ i) CaCl2 j) CO2 k) H2CO3(aq) l) NO3 m) AuCl f) g) h) C6H12 _________________________________ n) _________________________________ HBr(aq) ________________________________ _______________________________ FeCl3 __________________________________ _______________________________ Na3N o) LiOH(aq) p) Na2CO3 12. Write the formulas for the following compounds: a) Sodium oxide a) Nitrous Acid b) Hydrofluoric acid b) Hydroaresenic acid c) Pentene c) Ethene d) Copper (I) iodide d) Magnesium hydroxide e) Calcium Nitride e) Dinitrogen tetroxide f) Lithium Fluoride f) Phosphorus trichloride g) Sodium Phosphate g) Sulphide dioxide h) Butane P) Carbon tetrafluoride 13. Balance the following chemical equations: a) b) 14. ______ Br2 + ______ H2 ___2__HBr ______ N2 + ____3__ H2 ____2__ NH3 c) ______ Fe2O3 + ___3___ H2 ____2__Fe + ____3__ H2O d) ______ C10H16 + ____8__ Cl2 ___10___C + ____16__ HCl Know the 6 types of reactions. Give an equation to represent each type: a) Synthesis d) Neutralization A + B= AB b) Decomposition e) Double Displacement AB= A + B AB + CD = AD + BC c) Combustion f) Single Displacement A + O2 = CO2 + H2O 15. Acid + Base = ionic compound + water Predict the products of the following reactions & Balance: C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O -combustion A + BC = AC + B Na(OH)(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl + H2O -double displacement/ neutralization 3Mg(OH)2(aq) + 2FeCl3 3MgCl2 + Fe2O3 + 3H2O -double displacement 3Au + 2ZnCl2 3AuCl3 + 2Zn -single displacement 16. What are the properties of Acids? Acids are aqueous solution that react with metal, water soluble, conduct electricity, taste sour, corrosive and turn red litmus blue and turn red litmus red, and turn red from green for the universal indidcator. 17. What are the properties of Bases? Bases area aqueous solution that taste bitter, conduct electricity, corrosive, react with protein, are ionic compounds, also called alkalines, they turn blue litmus red, and remain blue litmus blue, and turn purple from green for the universal indicator. UNIT 2 – MOTION (PHYSICS) 1. Define and provide their common units: a. Position h. Speed Instantaneous b. Displacement i. Acceleration c. Distance j. d. Time k. Weight e. Motion l. Friction f. Speed m. Newton’s laws Average Speed n. Gravity g. Force 2. Calculate the slope of the following graph. Show work and units. 3. Find the speed of an object that is moving 500 m in 55 seconds. 4. Find the distance if an object is moving 21.0 m/s for 35 seconds. 5. Find the time if an object travels 10.0 m/s for 475 km. 6. A hound running at a velocity of 16 m/s [S] slows down uniformly to a velocity of 4.0 m/s [S] in 4.0 s. What is the displacement of the hound during this time? 7. A golf ball that is initially travelling at 25 m/s hits a sand trap and slows down with an acceleration of -20 m/s2. Find its displacement after 2.0 s. 8. The 1968 Corvette took 6.2 s to accelerate to 160 km/h [N]. If it travelled 220 m [N], find its acceleration. 9. A bullet accelerates the length of the barrel of a gun (0.750 m) with a magnitude of 5.35×10 5 m/s2. With what speed does the bullet exit the barrel? 10. Graph the following data to find the average velocity: Make sure to include all the parts of a graph (ie. Title, label axis, etc.) Position (m) 0 82 160 244 326 400 482 570 656 781 865 940 1023 1105 Time (s) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 11. Describe the motion from the following position time graph and draw its corresponding velocity time graph. Use an appropriate scale 12. Explain the difference between uniform and non-uniform motion. Know what uniform motion looks like on a distance – time graph and what non-uniform motion looks like on a distance- time graph. Be able to sketch these 13. Draw the position time graph of the object whose motion is described by the following graph. 14. For the following given vectors (L,C,H,S,P), calculate the resultant vectors mathematically, and graphically on a separate sheet of paper. Use an appropriate scale for each one. Given: L = 6.0 m [N] Find: P + C C = 1.0 m [E] L+H H = 4.5 m [W 30° S] L+C+S S = 2.7 m [NW] P-S P = 3.0 m [S] C+H+S 15. Write out the following vector in polar Cartesian form and in rectangular form: 4.5 m [W 30° S] 16. Write out the following vector in polar navigator form and in rectangular form: 5.3 m ∠ 339° 17. Write out the following vector in polar Cartesian form and in polar navigator form: (-5.3 m/s, -4.5 m/s) 18. A man making deliveries to stores in a neighbourhood travels from the warehouse 5 blocks west, 3 blocks north, 7 blocks east, 2 blocks south, 4 blocks south, 3 blocks west, 1 block north, 3 blocks west, 2 blocks north. What is the man’s final position? What total distance did the man travel? 19. Use the DRUL rule to convert the following measurements: a) 300 m = _____________ km b) 560 km = _____________mm c) 434.5 km = ____________ hm d) 0.000 345 dag = ________________cg e) 1 360 000 cm = ______________________m f) 2345 dm = ________________________cm 20. Write the following in scientific notation: a) 1258 = b) 0.54 = c) 56 = d) 0.000 03 = 22. What are Newton’s 3 laws of motion? 23. Provide an example of inertia. 24. Provide an example of Newton’s third law. 21. Complete the following compound conversions: 36m/s = __________km/h 200 km/h = _______m/s 1.2 m/s = ________km/h 25. A cart with a mass of 4.00 kg is being pulled across a horizontal table by a force of 14.0 N. a. Calculate the weight of the mass. b. Draw the free body diagram with all the above information. c. At what rate would you expect the cart to accelerate? d. If the cart started at rest and travelled 24.0 m in the first 4.00 s, what force of friction must have been acting? e. Draw the updated free body diagram with all the above information. Unit 3: Climate and Ecosystem Dynamics 1. Contrast abiotic and biotic factors. Give an example of each. 2. What is the difference between natural and an artificial ecosystem? Give an example of each. 3. What is Sustainability? What are the two factors that affect the sustainability of the environment? 4. What is the difference between climate and weather? 5. What types of human activities have contributed to the increased rate of climate change? 6. What are the greenhouse gases that we discussed in class? Know some sources of each. 7. What is a jet stream? 8. Define Biodiversity, what are the five factors that lead to biodiversity loss? 9. What is a biome? List the biomes we studied and their key characteristics. 10. The Carbon Cycle: a. What are the two complementary processes of the carbon cycle? b. Write out the reactants and products for both processes. 11. The Nitrogen Cycle a. What 2 methods are there for atmospheric nitrogen to be fixed into nitrates? b. How are nitrates converted back into nitrogen gas? 12. Populations a. What are the four components that effect population growth? Provide a brief description of each. b. What is the difference between an open and closed population? 13. Limits on Populations a. Define Carrying capacity. b. What would happen if the population of field mice began to exceed the carrying capacity? 14. Define Biotic Potential, and know the 4 factors that affect it. 15. Give some examples of Density Dependent and Density Independent) factors that limit population size. 16. Know the difference between linear and exponential population growth and what they look like on a graph. PREPARING FOR YOUR FINAL EXAM *Please use your in-class review time wisely and study at home over a period of days – this will produce better results than last minute cramming! *Please ask questions or arrange a time for extra help if you are having problems, but I will not just give you answers because you are too lazy to look them up or they are missing from your notes – YOU are responsible for material you have missed. *The best practice for calculation problems and naming/formulas for chemical compounds is to go back in your notes and REDO the numerous questions provided. Just “reading” through calculations or naming problems will not help you learn how to actually do them/name them.