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Chapter 1.6 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Fats
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Chapter 1.6 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Fats
Carboxylic Acids
Organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group (-COOH)
In aqueous solution one of the H+ is removed easily which makes
the solution acidic
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Naming Carboxylic Acids
Find the alkane name of the longest chain and drop the –e
Replace it with –oic acid
If –OH group present use the prefix “hydroxy”
If more than 1 –COOH use prefix “di”, “tri”, etc
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Name The Following:
Draw the Structure of
2-methylbutanoic acid
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Practice Time!
P. 48 #1, 2
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Properties of Carboxylic Acids
Very polar because of =O and –OH which form H bonds with one
another and other polar solvents (water)
5 carbon or less very soluble; the longer the HC chain, the less
soluble they are
Share properties with other acids
Affect indicators
React with bases to form salts and water
Melting points higher because of dipole interactions
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Esters AKA organic salts
Contains a carbonyl group, bonded to a second oxygen atom which
is bonded to another carbon atom
Responsible for the odours of fruits, flowers, perfumes
Formed by the condensation reaction of a carboxylic acid and an
alcohol
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Naming Esters
Determine which part came from the alcohol and start the name
with that by changing the ending to –yl
Name the part with the carboxyl group and change the ending to –
oate
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Name this Ester:
Draw the Structural Diagram for:
ethyl methanoate
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Practice Time!
P. 50 #1, 2
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Properties of Esters
Compared to carboxylic acids, esters are missing their –OH group so
they are less polar
Don’t form H bonds
Less soluble in water than carboxylic acids
Lower BP than carboxylic acids
Similar BP/MP to aldehydes and ketones
Small esters are gases at room temperature
Large esters are waxy solids
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Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Esters
1. Formation of Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes oxidize into carboxylic acids as an additional oxygen atom
is added. (Ketones can’t be oxidized further) Butanal + (O) butanoic
acid
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2. Formation of Esters (Esterification)
This is a condensation reaction in which an alcohol and a carboxylic
acid react to form an ester and water. acid + alcohol ester + water
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3. Reverse Esterification (Hydrolysis)
When esters are treated with an acid or a base, they will split into an
alcohol and a carboxylic acid if water is added as well.
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Example 1
Write equations to show the TWO chemical reactions that form
butanoic acid from an alcohol
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Example 2
Draw the structural formula equation that shows the reaction that
forms propyl butanoate.
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Example 3
Writ the structural formula equation for the hydrolysis of ethyl
propanoate by sodium hydroxide solution.
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HOMEWORK
P. 53 #1
Read & summarize p. 53 (Fats & Oils)
P. 55 #1-9
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