Anatomy- describes structures of body HUMAN ANATOMY CHAPTER 1: Physiology – study of functions of anatomical structures – individual and cooperative functions. HUMAN ANATOMY Gross Anatomy= macroscopic anatomy (large visible structures) Surface = exterior Regional = body areas Sectional = cross sections Systematic = organ Clinical = medical specialties Developmental = conception adulthood, embryology Chemical cellular tissue organ organ system organisms Organ Systems: Integumentary/Skeletal/Muscular/Nerves/Endocrine/Cardiovascular /Lymphatic/Respiratory/Digestive/Urinary/Male + Female Reproductive Surface Anatomy= structure on or near body surface ORGAN SYSTEMS: ORGAN SYSTEMS Integumentary Muscular Skeletal Nervous Endocrine Lymphatic Cardiovascular Respiratory Digestive Urinary Male/ Female Repro FUNCTION Barrier/Retain bodily fluids/Eliminate waste product/ Regulate body temp Locomotion – tightening and relaxing Provides support + protection – locomotion Produce blood cells + store minerals Control center for human body; receive/interpret/and transmits impulses to body Regulates hormone and chemical release Transport lymph which delivers nutrients and oxygen to all cells of body. Circulates blood + oxygen + nutrients – delivery system Supply blood with oxygen via breathing Convert food into energy and nutrients Filter out excess fluid and substances Reproduction MAIN ORGANS Skins, hair, nails, and sweat glands. Muscles Bones Brain, spinal cord, and nerves Glands Lymph vessels, ducts, and nodes Heart, blood, blood vessels, and lymphatics Nose, trachea, diaphragm, bronchi, and lungs Mouth, stomach, and intestines Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Uterus, penis, ovaries, and testes ANATOMIC LANDMARKS Anatomical Position = hands @ side/ palms forward Supine = lying down, face up Prone = lying down, face down Anterior/Ventral= front Posterior /Dorsal= back Cranial/Cephalic= towards head Caudal= towards tail (coccyx/caudal vertebrae) Superficial = closer to body surface Deep- towards interior of body Lateral = away from midline Medial= towards midline Proximal= towards point of attachment of limb to trunk Distal = way point of attachment of limb to trunk SECTIONAL PLANES: Frontal/Coronal Plane Oriented parallel to long axis Sagittal Plane Oriented parallel to long axis Transverse/Hori Plane Oriented perpendicular to long axis Separates front and back Sagittal: Separates left and right Midsagittal: passes through midline, separates body into equal left and right sides. Parasagittal: Separates body into unequal right and left sides Separates superior and inferior “frontally or coronally” “Sagittal” “Transversely” HOMEOSTASIS- All body systems work together to maintain stable internal environment. In response to external and internal changes. State of equilibrium. Dynamic equilibrium = continual adaption Homeostatic regulation: 1. Autoregulation – automatic response due to environmental change. 2. Extrinsic regulation – controlled by nervous or endocrine systems. Mechanisms controls: 1. Receptor (receives stimuli) 2. Control center (processes signal and sends instructions) 3. Effector (executes instructions) NEGATIVE FEEDBACK – body brought back into homeostasis (normal range). RESPONSE of effector negates SIMULUS POSITIVE FEEDBACK – body moved away from homeostasis. RESPONSE amplifies original change in condition. QUICKLY completes dangerous process to reestablish homeostasis. Ex. Babies growth takes up space in uterus stretch receptors activated in uterus brain signals release of oxytocin oxytocin causes uterine muscles to contract contractions get stronger until baby is delivered. BODY CAVITIES: POSTERIOR/DORSAL CAVITY Cranial Cavity Vertebral Cavity ANTERIOR/VENTRAL CAVITY THORACIC Contains brain Contains spinal cord Mediastinum Pleural Cavity Pericardial Cavity Serous membrane ABDOMINOPELVIC Abdominal Cavity Pelvic Cavity Peritoneal Cavity Cavity between pleural cavities. Contains great vessels, esophagus, trachea, and bronchi Surrounding lung Surrounding heart A mesothelial tissue that lines cavities of the body. Creates a smooth, transparent, two-layered membrane lubricated by a fluid derived from serum. Contains abdominal organs. Contains digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs (urinary bladder, rectum, and parts of colon) Contains abdominal and lymphatic organs. ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS: HEAD Cephalic=head Cranial=skull Facial=face Frontal=forehead Nasal=nose Otic=ear Buccal=cheek Oral=mouth Mental=chin Cervical=neck BODY Thoracic=chest/thorax Mammary=breasts Abdominal=abdomen Umbilical=navel/bellybutton ARM/UPPER LIMB Acromial=shoulder Axillary=armpit Brachial=arm Antecubital=front of elbow Olecranal=back of elbow Antebrachial=forearm Carpal=wrist Palmar=palm Pollex=thumb Digits=toes Manual=hands LEG/LOWER LIMB Femoral=thigh Patellar=kneecap Popliteal=back of knee Crural=leg Sural=calf Calcanea=heel Tarsal=ankle Pedal=foot Hallux=great toe Digits=toes Plantar=sole of foot PELVIC/BACK Pelvic=pelvis=trunk Inguinal=groin Pubic=pubis Lumbar=loin Gluteal=butt CYTOLOGY: ANATOMY OF A CELL: CELL MEMBRANE: CELL ORGANELLES: Plasma membrane= phospholipid bilayer – regulates what goes in and out of cell. Nucleus = contains chromosomes and nucleolus – stores genetic material and controls all cellular activities Nucleolus = mass of RNA located within the nucleus – center for organizing ribosome and other RNA product Ribosomes = granular proteins that can synthesize DNAProtein Endoplasmic Reticulum= membranous network continuous with nuclear membrane – synthesis/folding/modification and transport of proteins and fats. Rouge ER = Protein synthesis with ribosomes attached Smooth ER= Lipid synthesis with no ribosomes attached Golgi apparatus = package protein products @ rough ER Mitochondria = oval organelle that produces ATP via Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Lysosome = vesicles filled with enzymes to break down cellular waste Peroxisome = contains reducing enzyme catalase for protection of cell against toxic substances Secretory vesicles = membrane bound sac which stores proteins for secretion Microfilaments + Microtubules = long protein fibers for cell support and movement Centrioles = two short rods of microtubules located near nucleus – important in nuclear division for moving chromosomes Cilia= sensory organelle Flagella= locomotion Vesicles= small compartment with at least one lipid bi later – made in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum – transports chemicals CELL CYCLE: continual cycle of growth and replication (INTERPHASE MITOSIS) INTERPHASE: Occurs between every mitotic phase (Three Part: G1SG2) G1: Growth phase 1, Initial growth phase during which cells grow, develop, copies organelles. S: Synthesis phase DNA gets replicated G2: Growth phase 2, Cell grows more and prepares for mitosis MITOSIS: 1. Prophase: nuclear membrane starts to degenerate, chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Stages of Prophase: (LZPDD) Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, Diplotene and Diakinesis Leptotene: chromosome condenses. Zygotene: Synapsis begins via complex forming between homologous chromosomes. Pachytene: Crossing over between non-sister chromatids Diplotene: Homologues pairs remain attached at chiasmata Diakinesis: Chromosome fully condenses and nuclear membrane disintegrate Mitotic spindles organize around centrioles. Centromere form to join 2 sister chromatids. 2. Metaphase: Sister chromatids attached to spindle fiber line up @ equator/MIDDLE. 3. 4. Anaphase: Sister chromatids move AWAY from equator towards opposite poles cytokinesis begins Telophase: Cleavage furrow form, mitotic spindles disappear, and DNA returns to its chromatin form.