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CH1-INTRO

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Anatomy- describes structures of body
HUMAN ANATOMY CHAPTER 1:
Physiology – study of functions of anatomical structures – individual and cooperative functions.
HUMAN ANATOMY
Gross Anatomy= macroscopic anatomy (large visible structures)
Surface = exterior
Regional = body areas
Sectional = cross sections
Systematic = organ
Clinical = medical specialties
Developmental = conception  adulthood, embryology
Chemical  cellular  tissue  organ  organ system  organisms
Organ Systems: Integumentary/Skeletal/Muscular/Nerves/Endocrine/Cardiovascular /Lymphatic/Respiratory/Digestive/Urinary/Male + Female Reproductive
Surface Anatomy= structure on or near body surface
ORGAN SYSTEMS:
ORGAN SYSTEMS
Integumentary
Muscular
Skeletal
Nervous
Endocrine
Lymphatic
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
Male/ Female Repro
FUNCTION
Barrier/Retain bodily fluids/Eliminate waste product/ Regulate body temp
Locomotion – tightening and relaxing
Provides support + protection – locomotion
Produce blood cells + store minerals
Control center for human body; receive/interpret/and transmits impulses to body
Regulates hormone and chemical release
Transport lymph which delivers nutrients and oxygen to all cells of body.
Circulates blood + oxygen + nutrients – delivery system
Supply blood with oxygen via breathing
Convert food into energy and nutrients
Filter out excess fluid and substances
Reproduction
MAIN ORGANS
Skins, hair, nails, and sweat glands.
Muscles
Bones
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Glands
Lymph vessels, ducts, and nodes
Heart, blood, blood vessels, and lymphatics
Nose, trachea, diaphragm, bronchi, and lungs
Mouth, stomach, and intestines
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Uterus, penis, ovaries, and testes
ANATOMIC LANDMARKS
Anatomical Position = hands @ side/ palms forward
Supine = lying down, face up
Prone = lying down, face down
Anterior/Ventral= front
Posterior /Dorsal= back
Cranial/Cephalic= towards head
Caudal= towards tail (coccyx/caudal vertebrae)
Superficial = closer to body surface
Deep- towards interior of body
Lateral = away from midline
Medial= towards midline
Proximal= towards point of attachment of limb to trunk
Distal = way point of attachment of limb to trunk
SECTIONAL PLANES:
Frontal/Coronal Plane
Oriented parallel to long axis
Sagittal Plane
Oriented parallel to long axis
Transverse/Hori Plane
Oriented perpendicular to long axis
Separates front and back
Sagittal: Separates left and right
Midsagittal: passes through midline, separates body into equal
left and right sides.
Parasagittal: Separates body into unequal right and left sides
Separates superior and inferior
“frontally or coronally”
“Sagittal”
“Transversely”
HOMEOSTASIS- All body systems work together to maintain stable internal environment. In
response to external and internal changes. State of equilibrium.
Dynamic equilibrium = continual adaption
Homeostatic regulation:
1. Autoregulation – automatic response due to environmental change.
2. Extrinsic regulation – controlled by nervous or endocrine systems.
Mechanisms controls:
1. Receptor (receives stimuli)
2. Control center (processes signal and sends instructions)
3. Effector (executes instructions)
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK – body brought back into homeostasis (normal range). RESPONSE of
effector negates SIMULUS
POSITIVE FEEDBACK – body moved away from homeostasis. RESPONSE amplifies original
change in condition. QUICKLY completes dangerous process to reestablish homeostasis.
Ex. Babies growth takes up space in uterus  stretch receptors activated in uterus  brain signals release of oxytocin  oxytocin causes uterine muscles to contract
 contractions get stronger until baby is delivered.
BODY CAVITIES:
POSTERIOR/DORSAL
CAVITY
Cranial Cavity
Vertebral Cavity
ANTERIOR/VENTRAL
CAVITY
THORACIC
Contains brain
Contains spinal cord
Mediastinum
Pleural Cavity
Pericardial Cavity
Serous membrane
ABDOMINOPELVIC
Abdominal Cavity
Pelvic Cavity
Peritoneal Cavity
Cavity between pleural cavities.
Contains great vessels, esophagus, trachea, and bronchi
Surrounding lung
Surrounding heart
A mesothelial tissue that lines cavities of the body. Creates a smooth,
transparent, two-layered membrane lubricated by a fluid derived from serum.
Contains abdominal organs.
Contains digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs (urinary bladder, rectum,
and parts of colon)
Contains abdominal and lymphatic organs.
ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS:
HEAD
Cephalic=head
Cranial=skull
Facial=face
Frontal=forehead
Nasal=nose
Otic=ear
Buccal=cheek
Oral=mouth
Mental=chin
Cervical=neck
BODY
Thoracic=chest/thorax
Mammary=breasts
Abdominal=abdomen
Umbilical=navel/bellybutton
ARM/UPPER LIMB
Acromial=shoulder
Axillary=armpit
Brachial=arm
Antecubital=front of elbow
Olecranal=back of elbow
Antebrachial=forearm
Carpal=wrist
Palmar=palm
Pollex=thumb
Digits=toes
Manual=hands
LEG/LOWER LIMB
Femoral=thigh
Patellar=kneecap
Popliteal=back of knee
Crural=leg
Sural=calf
Calcanea=heel
Tarsal=ankle
Pedal=foot
Hallux=great toe
Digits=toes
Plantar=sole of foot
PELVIC/BACK
Pelvic=pelvis=trunk
Inguinal=groin
Pubic=pubis
Lumbar=loin
Gluteal=butt
CYTOLOGY:
ANATOMY OF A CELL:
CELL MEMBRANE:
CELL ORGANELLES:
Plasma membrane= phospholipid bilayer – regulates what goes in and out of cell.
Nucleus = contains chromosomes and nucleolus – stores genetic material and controls all cellular activities
Nucleolus = mass of RNA located within the nucleus – center for organizing ribosome and other RNA product
Ribosomes = granular proteins that can synthesize DNAProtein
Endoplasmic Reticulum= membranous network continuous with nuclear membrane – synthesis/folding/modification and transport of proteins and fats.
Rouge ER = Protein synthesis with ribosomes attached
Smooth ER= Lipid synthesis with no ribosomes attached
Golgi apparatus = package protein products @ rough ER
Mitochondria = oval organelle that produces ATP via Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
Lysosome = vesicles filled with enzymes to break down cellular waste
Peroxisome = contains reducing enzyme catalase for protection of cell against toxic substances
Secretory vesicles = membrane bound sac which stores proteins for secretion
Microfilaments + Microtubules = long protein fibers for cell support and movement
Centrioles = two short rods of microtubules located near nucleus – important in nuclear division for moving chromosomes
Cilia= sensory organelle
Flagella= locomotion
Vesicles= small compartment with at least one lipid bi later – made in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum – transports chemicals
CELL CYCLE: continual cycle of growth and replication (INTERPHASE  MITOSIS)
INTERPHASE: Occurs between every mitotic phase (Three Part: G1SG2)
G1: Growth phase 1, Initial growth phase during which cells grow, develop, copies organelles.
S: Synthesis phase  DNA gets replicated
G2: Growth phase 2, Cell grows more and prepares for mitosis
MITOSIS:
1. Prophase: nuclear membrane starts to degenerate, chromatin condenses into chromosomes.
Stages of Prophase: (LZPDD) Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, Diplotene and Diakinesis
Leptotene: chromosome condenses.
Zygotene: Synapsis begins via complex forming between homologous chromosomes.
Pachytene: Crossing over between non-sister chromatids
Diplotene: Homologues pairs remain attached at chiasmata
Diakinesis: Chromosome fully condenses and nuclear membrane disintegrate
Mitotic spindles organize around centrioles. Centromere form to join 2 sister chromatids.
2.
Metaphase: Sister chromatids attached to spindle fiber line up @ equator/MIDDLE.
3.
4.
Anaphase: Sister chromatids move AWAY from equator towards opposite poles  cytokinesis begins
Telophase: Cleavage furrow form, mitotic spindles disappear, and DNA returns to its chromatin form.