Uploaded by Minerva Navarro

Anatomy Lab Activities 1-3

NAVARRO, Minerva C.
Medicine I-D
September 24, 2019
Physiological Significance of the Cohesive Forces of the Intrapleural Space
Microscope slide #2
1. Place a drop of water on one microscope slide
2. Put on top of it another microscope slide.
3. Consider the following:
a. Microscope slide A is visceral pleura.
b. Microscope slide B is parietal pleura;
c. Drop of water in between slides is pleural fluid.
The experimented microscope slides with water is similar to lung pleurae and pleural fluid through
the following:
a. The microscope slides A & B represent the visceral and parietal layers respectively. Both layers
are held together by the intrapleural fluid similar to that of a drop of water in between the
b. To keep a minimum friction, the intapleural fluid allows the lungs’ membranes to slide within
the chest against the thoracic wall like that of slides with a drop of water in between.
Normally, the amount of pleural fluid is 10-20 ml is spread thinly over visceral and parietal
pleurae, facilitating movement between the lungs and chest wall.
c. The absence of water between the slides, a sound is produced indicating that there is an
increased friction against surfaces but no sound is produced with the presence of water in
between. Comparing it to the pleural space of lungs with little to no pleural fluid, we can also
hear pleural rub upon auscultation.
The pleural cavity, with its associated pleurae, aids optimal functioning of the lungs during breathing.
The pleural cavity which contains pleural fluid, acts as a lubricant and allows the pleurae to slide
effortlessly against each other during respiratory movements.
Defense Mechanism of the Respiratory System
Imaginative mind
“OMG. I shrank the medical students!” A machine went out of control and shrunk
your class. Big ones were reduced to the size of 10 µm, medium sized ones to size of
2 to 10 µm, and the small ones were reduced to the size of < 2 µm. All of your
floating in the air.
Dr. G did not know what happened. She entered the classroom and saw no one
there. “My students must have gone to the library to make an advance reading.” Her
face lift and uttered, “Ahh.. such a nice day!” Then she went ahead and took a deep
breath with suck a big smile on her face. All of you floating in the air.
NAVARRO, Minerva C.
Medicine I-D
September 24, 2019
The respiratory tract is composed of several mechanisms protecting the lungs from absorbing
foreign particles that prevent us from getting sick (descending):
Protective apparatus
Vibrissae (hair in nasal cavities)
Cilia (tiny muscular, hairlike projections on
cells lining the airway)
Traps particles 6-10µm or bigger
Moves out foreign particles that entered the
Mucus layer
Traps pathogens
Alvoelar macrophages and neutrophils
Kills the pathogen that reaches the alveoli usually
those which are 2µm or even smaller
In addition, two defense mechanisms namely sneezing and coughing reflex are present in respiratory
system. Sneezing occurs when the trigeminal nerve is stimulated while coughing reflex usually occurs
when the trachea and bronchi are irritated by foreign particles before it reaches the lungs down to
the alveoli.
In line with the hope of getting the students of Dr. Glenda back, the students still have the chance of
getting out the respiratory tract of Dr. Glenda by sneezing or coughing reflex when stimulated.
However, if the question would also mean that if Dr. Glenda will have a hope of not getting sick, it is
unlikely for her to get infected since the students are not pathogens themselves and even if they are,
presence of alveolar macrophages would destroy the shrunk students.
Measure Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (Peak Expiratory Flow Rate Determination)
PEFR Meter
Measure PEFR of one member as per direction in the video
Name: Minerva C. Navarro
Age: 22 years old
Actual PEFR:
Height: 1.5748 m
Estimated Peak Flow (Female) = {[Height, m x 3.72) + 2.24] – [Age x 0.03]} x 60
= {[1.5748 x 3.72) + 2.24] – [22 x 0.03]} x 60
= [(8.098256 – 0.66) x 60]
= 7.438256 x 60
= 446.29536
Estimated Peak Flow (Female) = 446 L/min
NAVARRO, Minerva C.
Medicine I-D
Peak Flow Variability (%)
September 24, 2019
= (Actual Peak Flow Rate/Estimate Peak Flow Rate) x 100%
= (380/446) x 100%
= 85.20 %
Peak Flow Variability (%)
= 85%
The Peak Flow Variability is interpreted to be in the Green Zone which indicates that my maintenance
medication of Fluticasone propionate, formeterol fumarate (Flutiform), 250 mcg/10mcg is effective
and the routine treatment can be continued; reducing the medication may also be considered.