Medical Terminology • Define the word parts used to construct medical terminology: • • • • Root Prefix Suffix Combining form • Identify common medical terms used for body systems & associated diseases, disorders & procedures • Identify medical terms related to colour, number & measurement • Build & deconstruct medical terms from the word parts • Differentiate digital and analog time • Convert current time to the 24-hour-clock or military time Converting from 12 hour times to 24 hour clock • If the hour is exactly 12pm, then simply remove the 'pm' label. • If the hour is 12am, then change it to 00. • If the hour is a pm time, then simply add 12 to the hour. • Otherwise, the hour does not change. If it is less than 10, then add a zero before the digit. • The minutes and seconds never change when changing between 24 hour and 12 hour times. Medical Terminology • It is critical that you have a strong working knowledge of medical terminology. • The language of medicine is primarily derived from Greek and Latin. • Medical terminology is used in international language, and it is also necessary for communicating with other medical personnel. • The wider your vocabulary base, the more competent you seem to the rest of the medical community and the better the patient care you will be able to provide. • Understanding terminology involves breaking words down into their separate components of prefix, suffix, and root word and having a good working knowledge of those parts. Building Blocks of Medical Terminology hemi gastr ectomy hemigastrectomy Word Parts: Suffixes and Prefixes • Must be familiar with common suffixes and prefixes used in the health care setting. • Learn how to use suffixes and prefixes in conjunction with word roots to form and help decode medical terms. • Combining forms (roots) are the essential components of a word. They may signify a disease, procedure, or body part. They may appear at the front of the word or after a prefix Prefixes • A prefix appears at the beginning of a word and generally describes location and intensity. • Prefixes consist of one or more letters attached to the beginning of a combining form (root) • When a medical word (ventilation) contains a prefix (hyper), the meaning of the word is altered (hyperventilation). • Not all medical terms have prefixes. Suffixes • Suffixes are placed at the end of words to change the original meaning. • Suffixes consist of one or more letters attached to the end of a combining form (root). • In medical terminology, a suffix usually indicates a procedure, condition, disease, or part of speech. • A commonly used suffix is “-itis”, which means “inflammation.” • "When this suffix is paired with the prefix “arthro”-, meaning joint, the resulting word is arthritis, an inflammation of the joints. • Sometimes it is necessary to change the last letter or letters of the root word or prefix when a suffix is added to make pronunciation easier. Word Parts: Roots • Explore common word roots grouped by body system and learn how to pronounce them. • The main part or stem of a word is called a root word. • A root word conveys the essential meaning of the word and frequently indicates a body part. • With a combining form, the root word and a combining vowel such as i, e, o, or a may be combined with another root word, a prefix, or a suffix to describe a particular structure or condition. • Some root words may also be used as prefixes or suffixes Abbreviations • Must know common abbreviations specific to the health care field. • Learn general medical abbreviations and abbreviations specific to each body system. • Explore how to correctly use abbreviations and take precautions to avoid misunderstandings. • Abbreviations take the place of words to shorten notes or documentation. • When you are using abbreviations in patient care reports, remember to use only standard, accepted abbreviations to avoid confusion and errors. • Before using any abbreviations in your own reports, you should be familiar with accepted use of abbreviations in your local jurisdiction or service area. Abbreviations SOB Short of breath NPO Nil per os (nothing by mouth) ADL Activities of daily living RULES: Must use only accepted abbreviations. Do Not Use list from Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada (ISMP): U = unit mistaken for o IU = international unit mistaken for IV OD = every day, in some cases it was known as OD= Rt. Eye D/C = discharge mistaken for discontinue Anatomic References • Must know the correct medical terminology used to reference areas of the body. • Identify body planes and directional terms. • Identify each body cavity and its contents as well as abdominal regions. Translate the following: 22 yr. old female admitted ċ RLQ pain, N & V. CBC and urine for R & M ordered. NPO at 2300. Monitor I & O q 24h. Call MD for temp. > 38C. …admitted with right lower quadrant pain, nausea and vomiting. Complete blood count and urine for routine and microbiology ordered. Nothing by mouth at 11:00pm. Monitor intake and output every 24 hours. Call doctor for temperature greater than 38 degrees Celsius.