The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.–A.D. 1500) Lesson 6 Kingdoms of West Africa The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.–A.D. 1500) Lesson 6 Kingdoms of West Africa Learning Objectives • Analyze how the gold and salt trade in Africa facilitated the spread of ideas and trade. • Describe how the rulers of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai built strong kingdoms. • Summarize how other West African societies developed. The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.–A.D. 1500) Lesson 6 Kingdoms of West Africa Key Terms • • • • • • • surplus commodity Ghana Sundiata Mali Mansa Musa Songhai Trade Grows Across the Sahara As the Sahara dried out in Neolithic times, people were forced to migrate. Some moved into the savanna, the grasslands area that offered land for farming and pasturing herds. There, farmers grew beans, melons, and a variety of grains. Men cleared the land and prepared fields for planting. Women weeded, transplanted seeds, and threshed or ground grains. Trade Grows Across the Sahara • Trading Patterns Emerge • Trading Gold for Salt Trade Grows Across the Sahara Analyze Maps The people of early Africa developed a system of trade routes that connected much of the continent. Why do you think most of these trade routes bordered oceans and rivers? Trade Grows Across the Sahara As Neolithic people began farming, many still relied on hunting for their food. Ghana Between about 800 and 1600, several powerful kingdoms won control of the prosperous Sahara trade. The first of these kingdoms was Ghana, located on the broad “V” made by the Niger and Senegal rivers. Ghana • Gold Wealth of Ghana • The King and His Court • Islam’s Influence • Ghana Declines – Mali takes it’s place Ghana In the 1400s, a system of using standardized weights in the form of brass figures, such as this one from Ghana, to weigh the gold dust currency was developed in West Africa. Mali Amid the turmoil of Ghana’s collapse, the Mandinka people on the upper Niger suffered a bitter defeat by a rival leader. Their king and all but one of his sons were executed. According to tradition, the survivor was a sickly boy named Sundiata, regarded by his father’s enemies as too weak to be a threat. By 1235, however, Sundiata had become a great king and crushed his enemies, seizing control of the lucrative gold trade routes, and founding the empire of Mali. Mali • Mansa Musa: Mali’s Greatest Ruler • Mansa Musa’s Pilgrimage • Growth of Timbuktu Mali Draw Conclusions In this 1325 world map, Mali ruler Mansa Musa is offering gold to a trader. What does this image say about Mansa Musa and the Mali empire? Mali Analyze Data Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324 was a sight to behold as he traveled in grand style. Based on the numbers, what percentage of those who traveled with him were enslaved? Songhai In the 1400s, disputes over succession weakened Mali. Subject peoples broke away, and the empire shriveled. By the 1460s, the wealthy trading city of Gao (gow) had become the capital of the emerging West African kingdom of Songhai (SAWNG hy). Songhai • An Empire Expands • Invaders from the North Songhai The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu underscored the importance of education and of Islam in that city. Songhai Founded in the 5th century, Timbuktu was a great cultural, religious, and economic center. The city reached the height of its power in the 1400s and 1500s. Small Societies and Kingdoms of West Africa In the period from 500 to 1500, other kingdoms and societies flourished in various part of West Africa. The kingdom of Benin (beh NEEN) developed in the rain forest, while the fertile northern lands of modern-day Nigeria were home to the Hausa (HOW suh) people. They were both successful farmers and traders. Small Societies and Kingdoms of West Africa • Benin: A Forest Kingdom • Walled City-States of the Hausa Small Societies and Kingdoms of West Africa Artists working in Benin sculpted many figures in bronze, including this warrior. Quiz: Trade Grows Across the Sahara Salt played a key role in the development of West Africa because A. B. C. D. it caused fierce rivalry among neighboring kingdoms. it encouraged trade and brought new religion to the region. it allowed outsiders to dictate what African culture should be. it began the process of European colonization in the region. Quiz: Ghana Which statement best describes the overall impact of Muslim merchants on the city of Kumbi Saleh? A. B. C. D. Muslim merchants controlled the city’s government. Muslim merchants were a small part of the city’s society. Muslim merchants displaced local residents in many neighborhoods of the city. Muslim merchants and traders made the city a bustling center for commerce. Quiz: Mali Mansa Musa was the greatest ruler of Mali. During his reign he A. ensured peace and prosperity by waging preemptive wars against his enemies. B. expanded the kingdom’s borders and forged ties with other Muslim lands. C. ensured peace and prosperity when he unified the kingdom by making his subjects convert to Islam. D. expanded Mali’s borders to the Atlantic Ocean and unified the kingdom by making his subjects convert to Islam.