# Physics 3108 OpAmp Lab ```Physics 3108
OpAmp Lab
Purpose
To introduce the student to the basic operation of an OpAmp, and to the electronic
breadboard that is used for prototype testing of the electronic circuits.
An electronic breadboard is used to quickly put together electronic circuits without the need
to use solder. This enables rapid prototyping of circuits. For more information look at:
Figure 1 – schematic of breadboard
The breadboard is internally wired according to the diagramme in Figure 2. The two top and
two bottom rows are referred to as bus strips. They are used to provide power and ground to
the circuits. The columns (labelled A-J in Figure 1) are used to connect electronic devices.
Figure 2 – electrical schematic of breadboard. The orientation can be either way.
The electronic breadboard is design to be used with simple devices (resistors, capacitors,
inductors) as well as dual in-line packaged devices (as shown in Figure 3) using pins spaced
by 0.1” (2.54mm) .
Figure 3 DIP (dual in-line package)
OpAmp Background
Most operational amplifiers have two input terminals, an inverting (-) and a non-inverting (+)
input, as shown in Figure 4.
V2
Vout
V1
Figure 4 Schematic of basic OpAmp
This arrangement is know as a differential (or difference) amplifier because the output
voltage is proportional to the difference between the two input voltages:
Vout = A0 (V1 − V2 )
where A0 is the open-loop (i.e. without feedback) gain of the opamp (typically 105-106).
Opamps are designed for use in negative-feedback circuits; they have high input impedances
and low output impedances and in many applications they can be treated as ideal amplifiers.
With suitable feedback they can be used to carry out various analogue operations (integration,
differentiation, summation, …) whence the name. The device requires positive and negative
power supplies (in this experiment +12V and -12V).
Figure 2 An inverting amplifier
Consider the circuit in Figure 2. a simple way of getting the voltage gain of this circuit, and
one which makes it easy to analyse similar circuits, is to use the idea of a ‘virtual earth’.
If the open-loop gain, A0 is large and the device is not to be overloaded, the input voltage at
point v- must be small (a few microvolts); point v- is a ‘virtual earth’. As a result, the input
current iS =
VS
RS
and the same current flows in RS and RF since none goes into the opamp.
Therefore:
V
V
V
R
iS = S = −iF = − out , and the voltage gain is: out = − F .
RS
RF
VS
RS
In this circuit, the ‘operation’ performed is that of multiplication by a constant.
A Typical Opamp.
Figure 5 – A typical opamp including pin configuration.
Procedure:
Part A – Inverting Amplifier – double sided
1. Make sure that the prototyping board is switched off.
2. Build an inverting amplifier as shown in Figure 2 powering the OpAmp with &plusmn;12V,
and using RS=1kΩ, and RF=10kΩ
3. Switch on the power and apply a 1kHz sine wave as an input signal. Measure the
voltage gain of the amplifier.
4. Measure the voltage gain for RF=100kΩ and RF=1MΩ.
5. Examine the saturation of the output. How high a voltage can the output of the
OpAmp reach? How does this compare to the voltage that supplies the OpAmp?
6. Confirm that you are able to theoretically analyse the circuit yourself.
Part B– Inverting Amplifier – single sided
1. Make sure that the prototyping board is switched off.
2. Change the –V input to the OpAmp to ground, so that your circuit is powered by
+12V and 0V.
3. Now examine the output of the circuit.
4. Examine the low voltage output of the OpAmp. For example: is the OpAmp able to
source 0V?
This lab will be demonstrated for those who are interested.
It will therefore be assumed that the students understand the
operation of the OpAmp.
There is nothing to hand in.
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