Topics • Review: Theories explaining origins of Native Americans • Columbus & the Rise of the Atlantic World True or false • The Spanish were the first to practice agriculture in the Los Angeles area. • Columbus was the first European to reach the western hemisphere. • The main purpose of Columbus 1492 voyage was to prove that the world was round. Cultural Diversity, 2500 B.C.E.-C.E.1500 • The Eastern Woodlands – 1200 B.C.E. Poverty Point emerges on the Mississippi River, LA (population of 5,000). • Mississippians – Mississippians become first agriculturalists by 700 C.E. • Incorporates ideas from Mesoamerica • Center Cahokia • 13th century food shortage leads to decline. Cultural Diversity, 2500 B.C.E.-C.E.1500 • Nonfarming Societies – From Alaska to northern California, Native Americans fish for salmon, dry, and store catch year-round; established permanent villages. – California Native Americans reside in permanent villages sustain themselves by collecting and grinding acorns. – Only the Mohave and Yuma Indians practiced agriculture in California 1492 • population of Western Hemisphere 75 million • North America 7 to 10 million • Hundreds of tribes and languages, CA the most diverse Native American Peoples • Kinship and Gender • Extended family far more important than nuclear family • Women farm (except in Southwest) • Spiritual and Social Values • All nature, including humanity, is interrelated suffused with spiritual powers. • Native Americans rely on reciprocity: giving gifts, trading goods in exchange for prestige, deference, authority • First contact between Europe and America 980s • Norse colonized Greenland: trade for furs and walrus ivory. • 1001 Leif Ericson establishes Vinland (Newfoundland). • Hostile relations with natives forced the Scandinavians to abandon in 1015. • Evidence ruins dating back to 1000’s in Newfoundland, Canada The Rise of the Atlantic World 1400-1625 • The "New Slavery" and Racism • The Portuguese entered the slave trade in the mid-15th century • Strong connection between the growth of sugar industry and the rise of this new slavery. • Slavery exists in West Africa before Europeans arrive; not based on racial difference The Columbian Exchange "Columbian exchange" movement of plants, food, crops, diseases and people From Old World to New World • Chicken cow dog goat goose horse rabbit (domestic) pig sheep • Apple banana coffee • Bubonic plague influenza measles smallpox typhoid yellow fever From New World to Old World • Llama turkey • Avocado cocoa maize (corn) peanut potato tobacco tomato vanilla • Syphilis?