Exploration Study Guide Use your notes, handouts and textbooks to help you answer these questions! I. Drivers of Change in First Global Age What were the five drivers of change? How was the Middle East and Asia ahead of Europe with regards to trade in the early 1400s? How did Marco Polo help Europeans establish trade routes with Asia? Why did Europeans need to find a water route to Asia? How did the Caravels help European exploration? Who was Prince Henry the Navigator? Why did Spain look westward to find a route to Asia? II. European Exploration What European nations were in competition for new lands and riches? How did the Renaissance encourage exploration? III. Columbus What caused Isabella and Ferdinand to give Columbus funding after rejecting him twice? What two theories inspired Columbus? In what year did he sail to the New World? Where did he first make landfall? Where did he establish the first permanent settlement? How did Isabella react when Columbus brought back Native Americans to Spain? What was Columbus’ penalty for the native people if they did not find enough gold? What was the biggest threat to the native peoples? IV. Columbian Exchange What is the Columbian Exchange? Which Western hemisphere food forms the cornerstone of cuisine in Italy? What color dye had peoples of the Americas developed that Europeans desired? What was it made from? Which disease killed 50-90% of the Native American population in the Western Hemisphere? How did the introduction of Christianity, tools, and guns change the lives of Native Americans in the Western Hemisphere? II. Sugar and Slavery When did Europeans first develop a love of sugar? What is a plantation? Why did plantation owners want to find a source of cheap labor? Why did Europeans turn to Africa for labor? What role did Bartolome de las Casas play in African slavery? What dangers did plantation slaves face? V. European Rivalry How did religious rivalries affect the race for American colonies? Why were England, France and Holland looking for a Northwest Passage? What did the Dutch and the French profit from in the New World? What impact did their rivalry have on Native Americans?