Microbiology Review EOG Review May 12-16

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Microbiology
Review
EOG Review
May 12-16
Microbe
• Small organism you can only see with a
microscope
• Ex. Virus, bacteria, protist, protozoa
Some microbes can be
pathogens…
• Pathogen: something that causes a disease
• Ex. Virus, bacteria, parasite
• Remember: Not all microbes can cause
disease. There’s good bacteria, too!
Virus
• Non-living pathogen
• Does not need to eat
• Needs a host cell to reproduce
• Prevention: VACCINE
• Treatment: Anti-viral meds (NOT antibiotics)
• Ex. Influenza, Common Cold (Rhinovirus),
West Nile Virus, Ebola, HIV, Polio, Chicken Pox
Bacteria
• Living pathogen
• Prokaryote, single celled
• Found EVERYWHERE!
• 3 Shapes: Rod, Round, Spiral
• Treatment: Antibiotics
• Take all prescribed – or could become
RESISTANT!
Bacteria cont.
• GOOD
1. Digestion
2. Help decompose
3. Bioremediation
4. Water Treatment
(break down
sewage)
• BAD
• Cause disease
Best Prevention
• WASH YOUR HANDS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Protist/Protozoa
•Eukaryotic Cells
1. Paramecium – cilia (small hairs)
2. Amoeba – pseudopod (fake foot)
3. Volvox - colonies, flagella
4. Euglena – flagella (whip-like tail)
Fungi
• Eukaryotic
• Feeds off other organism
• Treatment: antifungal meds
• Ex. Athletes foot, Ringworm, Yeast Infection
How Diseases Spread
• Vector: Organism that spreads disease
• Carrier: human that has a disease whether
they know it or not.
• Ex. Tick, mosquito, rat
• Ex. TYPHOID MARY, AIDS PAITENT
How Diseases Spread
Epidemic
• Outbreak of disease in
a community or
region
• NOT over entire
continent or world
• EX. PLAGUE
Pandemic
• World-wide
epidemic
• OR epidemic over
whole continent
• EX. INFLUENZA OF
1918.
CELLS
Cells
•All living things have cells
•Prokaryotic: NO nucleus
(Pro=No)
•Eukaryotic: YES nucleus
(Eu=Yes)
Organelle: Parts of a cell
• Nucleus: control center
• Mitochondria: makes energy, Cellular
Respiration
• Cell Membrane: “gate keeper,” surrounds
cell
• Chloroplast: photosynthesis, only in plant
cells
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis: Cell divides
PMATC
Makes 2 identical new cells
Helps replace old cells
Meiosis: Sex cell divides
PMATX2 THEN C
Makes 4 different gametes (sperm, egg)
Cancer
•Uncontrolled mitosis
•Cells divide out of control
•Caused by a mutation in cell
DNA
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