 Freshwater eukaryotic algae that with chlorophyll a and b.  Autotrophs that store food as starch and have cellulose cell walls.  Ancestral to land plants (depend on water).  They are not classified under Kingdom Plantae - belong to the Kingdom Protista

Bryophytes ( Non-vascular Plants )

 Without a vascular system xylem, phloem. No root, stem, leaves  quite small (1 –2 cm high)  They need moist environment to live.  They need water for their reproduction. They obtain water by osmosis and Diffusion.  Ex: Moss, Liverworts, Hornworts

Tracheophytes ( Vascular Plants )

 Plants with vascular system (Xylem, Phloem) that transports water, minerals, sugars, and other nutrients throughout the plant body.  They can grow very high.  They can have seed or can be without seeds.

Seedless Vascular Plants – ferns Plants producing seeds – Gymnosperms, Angiosperms Gymnosperm

 Gymnosperms

(meaning "naked seeds")

are seed-bearing plants that that don't produce flowers.  They release pollen into the air to the female ovule, causing fertilization.  needle-shaped leaves to conserve moisture 


Conifers like pines, redwoods, and fir (evergreen)


o Also known as flowering plants. o Unlike gymnosperms the seeds are enclosed in the

ripened ovary



o In temperate zones, many angiosperms are deciduous trees, In tropical zones, many are evergreen trees. o


oaks, willows, maples and birches.

Types of Angiosperm – Dicotyledon, Monocotyledon Dicotyledon

 Characterized by the presence of only two seed leaves when they first sprout (di = two, cotyledon = seed leaf).  Dicots usually have flower parts in fours and fives  Leaves are usually net-veined rather than having parallel veins.  Herbaceous and woody stems


 Characterized by solitary seed leaves (mono = one, cotyledon = seed leaf)  Having flower parts in groups of three  Leaves with parallel veins.  Almost all are herbaceous plants ( die completely at the end of the growing season).