Egypt and Nubia

Egypt and Nubia
Egypt’s Middle Kingdom
Middle Kingdom in Egypt- trade with
Mesopotamia and Indus
Nubia developed 600 miles south and traded
with Egypt
End of the Middle Kingdom
End of Middle Kingdom (2080-1640 BCE)
because of weak leadership and power
Hyksos invaded with chariots and ruled from
About 1600 series of rulers begins to bring
back Egypt’s power
◦ Queen Ahhotep
◦ Kamose (drove Hyksos out of Egypt)
Establishment of New Kingdom (1570-1075
Egypt’s Empire Builders in the New
Bronze weapons and two-wheeled chariots allowed
Egyptians to become conquerors
18th Dynasty Pharaohs (1570-1365) set up a strong
◦ Archers, infantry, charioteers
◦ New blue crown shaped like a helmet
◦ Declared herself pharaoh in 1472
◦ Encouraged trade and not just war
Thutmose III
◦ Hatshepsut’s stepson who became ruler around 1452
◦ More warlike
◦ Staged attacks on Palestine and Syria and Nubia
Expanded boundaries allowed for them to become
very wealthy trading gold, cattle, ivory, and slaves
Battle of Kadesh
By 1400 when the Egyptians crossed the Sinai
Peninsula they came into contact with the
Battle of Kadesh in 1285 ended in a draw and
Pharaoh Ramses II and the Hittite king singed a
peace treaty
Age of Builders
Palaces, temples, tombs (hidden beneath
desert cliffs in the Valley of the Kings)
Word ‘Pharaoh” means great house and
comes from this time period
Ramses II (1290-1224) most important leader,
who constructed many buildings
End of the Empire
Invasions By Land and Sea
Both Egyptian empire and Hittite kingdom
attacked by invaders from the land and sea
around 1200 BCE (although it is unclear who
they actually were)
Egypt’s Empire Fades
After invasions, Egypt broke apart into regional
Small kingdoms arose and the officials didn’t
listen to the Egyptian officials
950-730 BCE Libyan pharaohs ruled Egypt
Kushites Conquer the Nile Region
Nubia had always been the source of many
goods and slaves
Egypt had dominated the Nubian kingdom
Kush from 2000-1000 BCE
As Egypt declined Nubia would establish its
own kingdom on the throne of Egypt
People of Nubia
Nile was the best north-south trade route
Several Nubian kingdoms served as trade
Kerma was the first Nubian kingdom around
2000 BCE
Interaction Between Egypt and Nubia
During the New Kingdom Egypt forcefully
imposed its rule on Kush
Huge Egyptian cultural influence in Kush
◦ Kushite princes went to Egypt and learned Egyptian
language and worshipped Egyptian gods
◦ Adopted clothing styles
◦ Built pyramids based on Egyptian models
Kushites viewed themselves as preservers of
Egyptian culture
1100 BCE Kushites regain independent kingdom
Tried to conquer Egypt and oust Libyan rulers
Painkhi Captures the Throne
751 Piankhi overthrew the Libyan dynasty and
untied the entire Nile Valley
Painkhi and his descendants became Egypt’s
12th dynasty
671 Assyrians conquered Egypt
Kushites forced south again but would
experience a golden age
The Golden Age of Meroe
Meroe lay closer to the Red Sea and the royal
family would live there
Wealth of Kush
Meroe had a lot of rainfall and had abundant
supply of iron ore, so it became a major center
of manufacture of iron weapons and tools
Mineral wealth flowed out and luxury goods
from India and Arabia flowed in
Succession of kings determined by the
agreement of leaders and nobles
The Decline of Meroe
250 BCE – 150 Meroe began to decline
Aksum in the SE arose to rival its trading
Aksum defeats Meroe in 350