Type of Bond Force holding atoms or ions electronegativity

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Type of Bond
Force holding atoms or ions
together
electronegativity
difference
properties
particles involved in bonding: Ions
Ionic
electrostatic attraction
≥ 1.67





stronger than covalent
high melting points
usually soluble in H2O
only conduct molten/dissolved in H2O
solids: form crystals




weaker than ionic
low melting points
poor conductors
brittle







luster (shiny)
malleable/ductile
good conductors in all states
don’t form normal covalent bonds
group 1: soft
group2: in between
transition: hard
Transfer of e- (give/take)
particles: neutral
atoms
Polar Covalent
unequal sharing
0.2 to 1.67
overlap of e- clouds
Covalent
Sharing e-
Non-polar
Covalent
equal sharing
≤ 0.2
delocalized electrons
Metallic
N/A
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