Name: _______________________________________________ Date: __________ Block: _________ Test Review: Introduction to Genetics Answer the Following Questions Remember this is not an extensive review. Try to answer the following without your notes. This will give you an idea of what area’s you should be working on mastering. 1. The principle of dominance states: The principle of segregation states: The principle of independent assortment states: 2. Punnett squares can be used to predict what? __________________________________________. 3. A ______________________ is a sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and determines a trait. 4. Organisms that have two different alleles for a particular trait are said to be __________________. 5. The different forms of a gene are called ____________________. 6. A cross of a red bull with a white cow produces a roan offspring (red with white spots). This type of inheritance is known as _________________________________. 7. What is the approximate probability that a human offspring will be female? ____________________. 8. If an organism’s chromosome number (diploid) is 18, its haploid number would be ________________. 9. How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human kidney cell? _______________. 10. Why must gametes have a haploid number of chromosomes? 11. The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis is called _______________________. 12. The process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis is called _____________________________. 13. Gametes are produced by the process known as what? ________________________ 14. Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of ____________ genetically different cells. Punnett Squares: Be able to complete the following types of punnett squares: Monohybrid Cross, Dihybrid Cross, Incomplete Dominance Cross and Codominant Cross (Including Blood Type Crosses) and Sex Linked Crosses. Name: _______________________________________________ Date: __________ Block: _________ Meiosis Make sure you are familiar with the following vocabulary and the process of meiosis: chromosome, sister chromatids, spindle fibers, centromere, homologous chromosomes, haploid, diploid, crossing over. Possible Short Answer Questions Explain two similarities and three differences between meiosis to mitosis. Explain codominance and incomplete dominance in regards to the parents and offspring genotype and phenotype. Does the combination of genes in the first child change the genes that will be available to the next children? EXPLAIN why or why not?