The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades Agenda Bell Ringer: What is the main function of the feudal system in Europe? 1. Lecture: Byzantine Empire and Crusades 2. The Black Death Analysis 3. Pope Urban II and his Speech on the Crusades 4. Justinian’s Code analysis 5. Grade stuff, Phoenix must be posted by Friday at noon. 6. HW: Study for your test, Reading quiz on 10-11 on Friday. Emperor Justinian • 527 A.D. – 565 A.D. • Justinian Code 528 A.D. – Code = Useful Roman Laws. – Digest = Summarized legal opinions. – Institutes = Guide for law students. – Novellae = laws passed after 534 A.D. The Split of the Church • East/West Division occurs over fundamental beliefs of religion. • Icons- A picture to honor in a home or church. • Iconoclasts- These icons are WRONG, that is not worshipping god. • 1054- Church splits into Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox. Byzantine Art and Architecture • Mosaic – design made from stone, glass, or enamel. • Churches – location of images showed importance. • Hagia Sophia constructed in 532 A.D. • “Holy wisdom” • Extensive use of marble and gold. The Crusades: An Overview • Pope Urban II – “An Accursed race has violently invaded the lands of the Christians and depopulated them by pillage and fire.” • First Crusade 10961099 – Gain Jerusalem, first instance of European Imperialism. Crusades: Continued • Second Crusade 1147-1149 – More people are killed in the process. • Third Crusade 1189-1192 – Launched to retake Jerusalem, taken by Saladin two years prior. • Fourth Crusade 1202-1204 – Now they were fighting fellow Christians/Trade Rivals – Constantinople Looted in 1204. Impact of the Crusades • Encouraged the growth of a money economy. • Monarchs gain power, while the Church loses authority. • Begins a decline in the Church, added to by the Black Death. Fall of Byzantine Empire • Frequent invasions by Muslim and Christian warriors begin decline. • Death of Justinian leads to revolt and division within the empire. • Ottoman Turks take Constantinople in 1453 AD.