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Chapter 12 Lesson 2 The Crusades

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Chapter 12: Crusades and

Culture in the Middle Ages,

1000 – 1500

Lesson 2: The Crusades

1.

World History Bell Ringer #48

1-23-18

Born to a wealthy merchant family, Francis of Assisi

A. Used his social status to improve the lives of women.

B. Eventually abandoned all worldly goods and material pursuits to live and preach in poverty.

C. Was both a successful, wealthy merchant and a very popular poet.

D. Gave up his claim to the family fortunes to join the

Benedictine monastic order.

2.

World History Bell Ringer #48

Dominic de Guzmán believed the best way to attack heresy was

A. To lead a new Crusade against the Muslims in the

Holy Land.

B. By purging the cities of all old people who did not strictly follow Church doctrines.

C. To impose interdicts against kingdoms in which heresy was tolerated.

D. To form a new religious order of men who lived lives of poverty and preached effectively.

It Matters Because

From the 11

th

to the 13

th

centuries,

European Christians

carried out a series of military expeditions to regain the

Holy

Land

from the

Muslims

.

These expeditions are known as the

Crusades

.

The Early Crusades

Guiding Question: What were the religious, political, and economic motivations behind the Crusades?

The

Crusades

Comnenus

started when the

Byzantine emperor Alexius I

asked for help against the

Seljuk Turks

.

The

Seljuk Turks

were

Muslims

Minor

.

who had taken control of

Pope Urban II

, who responded to the request, saw an opportunity to provide leadership for a great cause.

Asia

That cause was rallying Europe’s warriors to free

Jerusalem

the

Holy Land

from people whom

Christians

viewed as and

infidelsor unbelievers—

the

Muslims

.

The Early Crusades

At the Council of Clermont in southern France near the end of 1095, Urban II asked

Christians to take up their weapons and join in a holy war.

The

pope

promised: "All who die . . . shall have immediate remission [forgiveness] of sins." The enthusiastic crowd cried out: "It is the will of

God

, it is the will of

God

.“

Warriors of

western Europe

, particularly

France

, formed the first crusading armies.

These

knights

were mostly motivated by religious fervor, but some sought adventure and welcomed the chance to fight.

Others saw a chance to gain wealth and a possible title.

Italian merchants

also sought new trade in

Byzantine

and

Muslim lands

.

After asking for help, the

Byzantines

became doubtful.

Alexius I and his daughter, Anna Comnena (who was also the Byzantines’ only female historian),

were fearful that the western crusading armies, which would have to go through

Byzantine lands

to reach their objective, might prove harmful to the

Byzantine

Empire

.

The Early Crusades

Regardless, the

First Crusade

began as 3 organized bands of mostly

French warriors

made their way to the

East

.

The

crusading army

, which included thousands of

men

in

cavalry

and

infantry

, captured

Antioch

in 1098.

The

crusaders proceeded

down the

Palestinian coast

, avoiding the well-defended coastal cities, and reached

Jerusalem

in June 1099.

The

Holy City

was taken amid a horrible massacre of its inhabitants.

The Early Crusades

After further conquests, the

crusaders crusader states

in the

East

.

organized

4 Latin

One of these was the kingdom of Jerusalem under Godfrey de

Bouillon- one of the Frankish leaders of the First Crusade.

Godfrey

, however, rejected the title of

king

, protesting that it belonged only to

God

.

Surrounded by

Muslims

, these

crusader kingdoms

on

Italian cities

for supplies.

depended

Some

Italian port cities

, such as

Genoa

,

Pisa

, and especially

Venice

, grew rich and powerful in the process.

The Early Crusades

It was not easy, however, for the

crusader kingdoms

maintain themselves in the

East

.

By the 1140’s, the

Muslims

had begun to strike back.

to

The fall of one of the

Latin kingdoms

to the

Muslims

led to calls for another

crusade

, especially from the monastic leader

Bernard of Clairvaux

.

Bernard

(7 th

)

of managed to enlist 2 powerful rulers,

France

and

Emperor Conrad III

of

King Louis VII

Germany

, in a

Second Crusade

.

This campaign, however, was a total failure.

The Early Crusades

In 1187,

Jerusalem

fell to

Muslim forces

under

Saladin

.

Saladin had made himself sultan of Egypt in 1169 and then become leader of the Muslim offensive against the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem.

After Saladin’s success, 3 European rulers then agreed to lead a Third Crusade:

German emperor Frederick Barbarossa, English king Richard I (Richard the

Lionhearted), and French king Philip II Augustus.

Some members of the encounter problems.

Third Crusade

arrived in the

East

by 1189, only to

Frederick

drowned in a local river.

The

English

and

French

unable to move inland.

arrived by sea and captured the coastal cities, but were

After

Philip

returned home,

Richard

negotiated a settlement with

Saladin

permitted

Christian pilgrims

free access to

Jerusalem

.

that

The Later Crusades

Guiding Question: How did the Crusades affect Europe and

Southwest Asia?

About 6 years after Saladin’s death in 1193,

Pope Innocent III

the

Fourth Crusade

.

initiated

As it headed

east

, the

crusading army

became involved in a fight over the

Byzantine throne

.

The

Venetian leaders

of the

Crusade

used the situation to weaken their greatest commercial competitor, the

Byzantine Empire

.

In 1204, the

crusaders

sacked

Constantinople

, adding to the division between the

Eastern Orthodox Church

and the

Catholic Church

.

Western forces

also set up a new

Latin empire

of

Constantinople

.

The Later Crusades

Not until 1261 did a

Byzantine army

recapture the city, but the

Byzantine Empire

was no longer a great

Mediterranean power

.

It now comprised the city of

Constantinople

and its surrounding lands, as well as part of

Asia Minor

.

The

empire

limped along for another 190 years, until its weakened condition enabled the

Ottoman

Turks

to conquer it in 1453.

The Later Crusades

Despite failures, the

crusading ideal

continued.

In

Germany

in 1212, a youth known as

Nicholas of Cologne

inspired him to lead a

"children's crusade"

to the

Holy Land

.

announced that

God

has

Thousands of young people joined across the

Alps

to

Italy

, where the

Nicholas pope

and made their way down the

Rhine

and told them to go home. Most tried to do so.

At about the same time, a group of about 20,000

French children

headed to

Marseille

, where 2 ship owners agreed to take them to the

Holy Land

.

7 ships filled with youths left the port. 2 of the ships went down in a storm.

The other 5 sailed to

North Africa

, where the

children

were sold into slavery.

The next

Crusades

of adult warriors were hardly more successful.

The last 2 major Crusades were organized by the king of France, Louis IX (9 th

).

After his defeat by

Baybars

, the plague without any conquests.

sultan

of

Egypt

,

Louis

tried again, but died of the

The Later Crusades

Did the

Crusades

disagree.

have much effect on

European civilization

? Historians

Clearly, the

Crusades

benefited the

Italian port cities

.

Even without the

Crusades

, however,

Italian merchants

would have increased trade with the

Eastern world

.

The

Crusades

had a tragic impact on the interactions between

Jewish societies

in

Europe

.

Christian

and

The first widespread attacks on the

Jews

began in the context of the

Crusades

.

Some

Christians

argued that to fight the

Muslims

while the blamed for Jesus’s death, ran free at home was unthinkable.

Jews

, whom they

The

Jews

of

medieval Europe

and expulsions.

came to be subjected to periodic

libels

, attacks,

The Later Crusades

Perhaps the greatest impact of the

Crusades

was political.

They eventually helped to break down

feudalism

.

As

kings

Crusades

levied (collected) taxes and raised armies,

nobles

sold their lands and freed their

serfs

.

joining the

As

nobles

lost power, the

kings

created stronger central governments.

Taxing trade with the

East

wealth.

also provided

kings

with new sources of

This paved the way for the development of true nation-states and contributed to the end of

medieval Europe

.

By the mid-1400s, 3 strong nation-states—

Spain

,

England

, and

France

—had emerged in

Europe

.

Assignment

Complete Chapter 12, Lesson 2 Quiz.

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