Chapter 9 Reading Guide Eastern Europe and Russia 1. How did the Byzantine Empire start? 2. Who was Justinian and what did he achieve? 3. How did Byzantium interact with the Arab world next door? 4. Describe Byzantine political organization? 5. What did the Byzantine economy depend on? 6. What led to the split of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches? 7. What were the causes of the decline of the Byzantine Empire? 8. Describe the beginnings of Kievan Rus. 9. Who was Vladimir I ? 10. Why did Kievan Rus decline? 11. What was happening in the borderlands of Eastern Europe at the time?