END OF RECONSTRUCTION “What is Gained is Lost and

“What is Gained is Lost and
What was lost is Regained.”
Reconstruction ended in 1877 as a result of a
compromise over the outcome of the election of
Compromise of 1877
Rutherford B. Hayes elected
president by Congress
•Southerners agreed to give
Hayes the presidency
•In return Federal troops
were removed from the
•Rights that African
Americans had gained were
lost through “Jim Crow”
Segregation: separation of
people by race
 Based on race
 Segregation directed
primarily at African
Americans in the
South; however, other
groups were kept
 Native Americans
were not considered
citizens until 1924
Laws that established and formalized segregation
 Passed to discriminate
against freedmen
 Made discrimination
practices legal in many
communities and states
 Were characterized by
unequal opportunities
in housing, work,
education, and
Voter Discrimination
 Poll Tax: taxes
imposed on voters
 Literacy Tests: tests
requiring voters to
read and write.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
 Supreme Court Case 1896
 Established that “separate but
equal” treatment was legal, thus
making segregation legal
throughout the nation
Secret Societies – Ku Klux Klan
 Members wore robes and masks and pretended to be
ghosts of Confederate soldiers returned from the
dead for revenge against the enemies of the South.
 Horsemen in long robes appeared at
night carrying guns and whips. They
encircled the homes of their victims,
and planted huge burning crosses in
their yards. People were dragged from
their homes, tortured, kidnapped, or
African Americans differed in their
responses to discrimination and “Jim
Crow” Laws.
Booker T. Washington
W. E. B. DuBois
 Famous educator (no
formal education)
 Believed equality
could be achieved
through vocational
education; accepted
social segregation as
a temporary situation
 1st African American
to earn a Ph. D from
 Rejected Booker T.
 Believed in full
political, civil, and
social rights for
African Americans
 Founded NAACP
William Edward Burghardt