Intro Question How might industrialization in a country lead to social unrest? Chapter 14-1 Revolutions in Russia I) Alexander III Upholds the Autocracy II) Nicholas II Resists Change III) Crises at Home and Abroad IV) The March Revolution V) The Bolshevik Revolution VI) Lenin Restores Order I) Alexander III Upholds the Autocracy We will now go back to the midst of WWI, and take a closer look at Russia: Czar Alexander III used harsh measures to wipe out the revolutionaries. Anyone who questioned his authority, worshiped outside the Russian Orthodox Church, or spoke a language other than Russian was tagged as dangerous. Alexander III oppressed other groups inside Russia, and a wave organized violence against Jews broke out in many parts of Russia II) Nicholas II Resists Change Nicholas II maintained the policies of his father Alexander III when he became Czar, vowing to maintain autocratic rule. The rapid buildup of Russian industry helps the country prosper. The great Trans-Siberian Railway is built with the help of British and French investors. This was the world’s longest continuous railway. Worker exploitation spurs the growth of revolutionary movements, including the Bolsheviks and their leader Vladimir Lenin. III) Crisis at Home and Abroad Trying to gain more land in Asia, Russia is defeated in the Russo-Japanese War; this sparks unrest. Russia’s first parliament (Duma) is formed after Bloody Sunday and the Revolution of 1905. 200,000 Russians went to the palace asking for food, Russian soldiers fired on the crowd, killing over 1000. The resistance after causes the creation of Duma. Russia faces defeats and food shortages during World War I. Nicholas II goes to the front and Rasputin influences his wife at home. Rasputin Gains influence over the Tsar’s wife. Influences political decisions. Is killed by wealthy nobles. IV) The March Revolution General uprisings force the abdication of Nicholas II. A weak provisional government replaces the czarist regime. Social revolutionaries, competing for power, formed soviets, which were local councils consisting of workers. The Germans arrange Lenin’s return to Russia in 1917. V) The Bolshevik Revolution In November 1917, without warning, the Bolshevik Red Army storm the winter palace in Petrograd, rallying to Lenin’s slogan of “Peace, Land, and Bread”. They took over the government and arrested leaders of the provisional government Within days of taking over, Lenin ordered all farmland be redistributed among the peasants and gave factory control to the workers. For 3 years (1918-1920) a civil war raged in Russia, with several western nations sending military aid and forces to help the opposing White Army In the end the Red Army triumphed and crushed all opposition VI) Lenin Restores Control Lenin launches the New Economic Policy (NEP) to help revive the faltering Russian economy. In 1922 Russia is renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) in honor of the councils that help launch the Bolshevik Revolution. The Bolsheviks rename their party the Communist Party, coming from the writings of Karl Marx who used the term to describe a classless society that would exist after workers seized power. Lenin established a dictatorship of the Communist Party.