Anatomy Bowl Prep Know and understand these terms.

Anatomy Bowl Prep
Intro Structure & Function of the Body by Lisa Sappenfield
Know and understand these terms.
 The smallest particle of a pure substance that still
has the chemical properties of that substance;
composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
 Particle of mater composed of one of more
smaller units called atoms
 The basic biological and structural unit of the
body consisting of a nucleus surrounded by
cytoplasm and enclosed by a membrane
 A group of similar cells that perform a common function
 Group of special tissues that performs a special function
 A group of organs arranged so that the group can perform a more
complex function than any one organ can perform alone
 Unified and complex assembly of structurally and functionally
interactive components
Supine & Prone
 Supine means that the body is facing upward
 Prone means that the body is facing downward
Superior & Inferior
 Superior means towards the head
 Inferior means below or towards the feet
Anterior & Posterior
 Anterior means front or in front of
 Posterior means back or in the back of
Medial & Lateral
 Medial means towards the midline of the body
 Lateral means away from the midline of the body
Proximal & Distal
 Proximal means closest to the trunk of the body
 Distal means farthest away from the trunk of the body
Superficial & Deep
 Superficial means nearer to the surface
 Deep means farther away from the surface
Sagittal plane
 Lengthwise plane that divides a structure into right and
left sections
Midsagittal plane
 Sagittal plane that divides the body into two equal halves
Frontal plane
 Lengthwise plane that divides a structure into an anterior
and posterior section
Transverse plane
 Horizontal plane that divides a structure into upper and
lower sections
Ventral cavity
 Thoracic
▪ Mediastinum
▪ midportion of thoracic cavity; heart, trachea located here
▪ Pleural cavities
▪ right and left lungs located here
 Abdominopelvic cavity
▪ Abdominal cavity contains stomach, small intestine, liver,
gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and most of the large intestine
▪ Pelvic cavity contains reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and the
remaining large intestine including the rectum
Dorsal cavity
 Cranial cavity contains brain
 Spinal cavity contains spinal cord
 Maintaining internal stability
 Survival depends on homeostasis
Feedback Loops
 Positive-stimulatory
▪ Example: Increasingly rapid sticking together of blood cells called
platelets to form a plug that brings formation of a blood clot. (The
process increases rapidly until the positive feedback loop is stopped
by formation of a clot)
 Negative-oppose or negate a change in the controlled condition
▪ Example: excretion of larger than usual volumes of urine when the
volume of fluid in the body is greater than the normal, ideal