World War II Begins

World War II Begins
Essential Question:
How could World War II have been prevented?
 Causes of World War II
 The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
o Officially ended World War One
o Severely punished Germany
 Blame
 Reparations
 Arms
 Territory
o Created the League of Nations
 International peacekeeping organization
 Purpose was to prevent another world war
 Worldwide economic depression
 Totalitarianism
o Government has total control over the people
o Powerful totalitarian governments after World War One:
 Soviet Union (USSR/Russia)
 Bolshevik Revolution established a communist
government (1917)
 Japan
 Established a militaristic government (1926)
 Italy
 Mussolini established a fascist government (1922)
o Extreme nationalism
 Germany
 Hitler established the Nazi government (1933)
o Form of fascism
 Imperialism
o When a stronger nation dominates a weaker nation
o Japan
 Invaded Manchuria (1931)
 Invaded China (1937)
 Murdered over 300,000 Chinese civilians in the “Rape of
o Italy
 Invaded Ethiopia (1935)
o Germany
 Moved troops into the Rhineland (1936)
 Invaded Austria (1938)
 Invaded Czechoslovakia (1939)
 Appeasement
o British and French policy
 Hoped to avoid war by giving in to Hitler
o Enabled Germany to easily conquer its weaker neighbors
 Isolationism
o The United States refused to join the League of Nations
o The United States did little to stop Japanese, Italian, and German
 World War II Participants
 Axis Powers
o Germany
o Italy
o Japan
 Allies
o Britain
o France
o Soviet Union (joined in 1941)
o United States (joined in 1941)
 World leaders
o Italy
 Benito Mussolini
o Japan
 Hirohito (emperor)
 Hideki Tojo (prime minister, general)
 Isoroku Yamamoto (navy)
o Germany
 Adolf Hitler
o Soviet Union
 Joseph Stalin
o Britain
 Neville Chamberlain
 Winston Churchill (replaced Chamberlain in 1940)
o France
 Charles de Gaulle
 American leaders
o Political leaders
 Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
 Harry S Truman (replaced Roosevelt in 1945)
o Military leaders
 European Theater
 General Dwight D. Eisenhower (supreme commander)
 General George S. Patton
 Pacific Theater
 Admiral Chester Nimitz (navy)
 General Douglas MacArthur (army)