Chapter 14 Notes: German Forty-Eighter: - Influx of Germans between 1830 and 1860 numbered around 1.5 million. - Many Germanic newcomers possessed a modest amount of material goods. - Most settled in Wisconsin on model farms. - Formed influential Political groups, not as effective as the Irish, because the Germans were more spread out. - Contributions of the German Immigrants: 1. Conestoga Wagon 2. Kentucky Rifle 3. Christmas Tree 4. Kindergarten School - Accustomed to “Continental Sunday” and uncurbed by Puritan traditions, they made merry on the Sabbath and drank huge quantities of an am amber beverage called bier (beer). - Old World drinking habits of both the Irish and the Germans led to a push for Reform for the Old Natives. Flare-ups of Antiforeignism: - 1840-1850’s a movement of anti-foreigners arose. - Nativists feared that these foreign hordes would outbreed, outvote, and overwhelm the old “native” stock. Newcomers were taking away jobs from Native Americans, and they were ROMAN CATHOLIC. - Catholicism by 1850 became the #1 religious group in America. - Know-Nothing-Party: a name derived from its secretiveness. “Nativists” agitated for rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers. They also promoted a lurid literature of exposure, much of it pure fiction. - One of these sensational books –Maria Monk’s Awful Disclosures, sold over 300,000 copies. - Violence between Orthodox and Catholics; burned churches in both Boston and Philadelphia. - Why, in fact, were such episodes not even more frequent and more violent? (Homework). Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine: - Samuel Slater has been acclaimed the “Father of the Factory System” in America, and seldom can the paternity of a movement more properly be ascribed to one person. In 1791 he put into operation the first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton. - Eli Whitney, another mechanical genius, made his mark. After graduating from Yale, he journeyed to Georgia to serve as a private tutor while preparing for law school. Worried about poverty he invented the Cotton Gin (short for engine) that was fifty times more effective than the handpicking process. - Almost overnight the raising of cotton became highly profitable, and the South was tied hand and foot to the throne of King Cotton. - Whitney’s perfection of the cotton gin, gave slavery a renewed lease on life, and perhaps made the Civil War more likely. At the same time, by popularizing the principle of interchangeable parts, Whitney helped factories flourish in the North, giving the Union a decided advantage when that showdown came. - The sewing machine, invented by Elias Howe in 1846 and perfected by Isaac Singer, gave another strong boost to northern industrialization. The sewing machine became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry which took root about the time of the Civil War. - In 1800 only 306 patents were registered. By 1860 there were 28,000. In 1838 the clerk of the Patent Office resigned in despair, complaining that all worthwhile inventions had been discovered. Workers and Wage Slaves: - Factories were stuffy and dangerous environments. - Hours were long, pay was small, and meals were scarce. - Workers were forced to toil in unsanitary buildings that were poorly ventilated, lighted, and heated. - Workers were forbidden by law to form labor unions to raise wages, for such cooperative activity was regarded as a criminal conspiracy. - In 1820 a significant portion of the nation’s industrial toilers were children under ten years of age. - Victims of factory labor, many children were mentally blighted, emotionally starved, physically stunted, and even brutally whipped in special “whipping rooms.” - Laboring man could vote, though and many became loyal to the “Champion of the Common Man,” Andrew Jackson. Women and the Economy: - Jobs in factories; although there were few opportunities for women. - Teaching profession is where many of the women found employment. Catharine Beecher, was responsible for be vocal about women entering the teaching field. - Cult of Domesticity: A widespread cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker. - Love, instead of “parental arrangement” determined more and more the choice of spouse. Western Farmers Reap a Revolution in the Fields: - Growth of corn and wheat changed the West. - The yellow grain was amazingly versatile. It could be fed to hogs (“corn on the hoof”) or distilled into liquor (“corn in the bottle”). Both of these products could be transported more easily than the bulky grain itself, and they became the early western farmer’s staple market items. - John Deere of Illinois in 1837 produced a steel plow that broke the stubborn soil or the West. It was light enough to be pulled by horses instead of having to use oxen. - McCormick Reaper: A mechanical mower-reaper. The clattering cogs of McCormick’s horse drawn machine were to the western farmers what the cotton gin was to the southern planter. Now more farmers could plant billowing fields of wheat. Highways and Steamboats: - Stagecoaches and wagons lurched over bone-shaking roads. - Lancaster Turnpike, the first solid highway. In Pennsylvania they made a 62 mile broad, hard surfaced highway from Philadelphia to Lancaster. - The turnpikes beckoned to the canvas-covered Conestoga wagons, their creaks heralded a westward advance that would know no real retreat. - Cumberland Road (1811): First national road of the government. Started in Cumberland Maryland and eventually went to Vandalia, Illinois, 591 miles to the west in 1839. - Robert Fulton: He installed a powerful steam engine in a vessel that posterity came to known as the Clermont but that a dubious public dubbed “Fulton’s Folly.” In 1807 though his steamboat churned steadily from New York City up the Hudson toward Albany. The run of 150 miles took 32 hours.