Chapter 28: Revolution in Russia 1917-1939 Section1: Two Revolutions in Russia Setting in Russia (1914) The country is dominated by landowning nobles, priests, and an autocratic czar. The autocratic czar (has absolute power) is Nicholas II of the Romanov Dynasty. Most of the peasant population is lived a life of extreme poverty, and a small working class (proletariat) emerged as Russia began to modernize. Czars made many ineffective reforms, like setting up the Duma which had no real power. Russia’s involvement of WWI has strained its resources and economy; which led to public being unhappy and wanting to pull out of the war. In a patriotic gesture, Nicholas II went to visit his fighting soldiers, and left czarina Alexandra in charge. Public didn’t like the czarina because she was half German. She also came to depend on a self proclaimed “holy man” named Rasputin. Rasputin was eventually assassinated because nobles feared him having too much influence on the monarchy. Section1: Two Revolutions in Russia Nicholas II Last czar to rule Russia. Didn’t want to limit his authority. Relied on the use of secret police. This reliance added to corruption in the government. Section1: Two Revolutions in Russia Collapse of the Monarchy March 1917: disastrous battles, and food and fuel shortages on the home front. Workers went on strike in St. Petersburg and chanted “Bread, Bread”. After, advice, the czar abdicated (gave up power) provisional government in power continued in war Revolutionaries plotted their own course: set up soviets (councils of workers and soldiers). BOLSHEVIKS( radical socialist group) TAKE CHARGE First leader is VI Lenin. Section1: Two Revolutions in Russia Lenin: Adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russia. Russia didn’t have a large urban proletariat so Lenin called for an elite group to lead the Revolution. He was helped return from exile by Germany. Promised “Peace, Land, and Bread”. In a matter of days, Lenin’s forces overthrew the provisional government. Section1: Two Revolutions in Russia Russian Civil War: Lasted three years. Red (Communists) vs. Whites (Counterrevolutionaries) Both sides were extremely brutal. Whites tried to assassinate Lenin. Reds organized the Cheka (secret police) and executed ordinary citizens and the Czar and his family so that they wouldn’t become a rallying symbol for counter revolutionaries. In 1921 the Communist prevail Russia is left in chaos, and needs to rebuild the nation and the economy Section2: From Lenin to Stalin 1922 CONSTITUTION Elected Legislature called the Supreme Soviet. all political power and means of production controlled by peasants and workers, but in reality the Communist Party was in control. use of army and secret police to enforce the party’s will. New plan (NEP) allowed a little bit of capitalism so that the Soviet Union could boost its economy. It was only temporary because Lenin wanted to put the USSR back on the road to “pure communistm. 1924 Lenin Dies Trotsky and Stalin fight for power, Stalin isolated Trotsky by using political cunning and isolating Trotsky fled the country but was later killed by Stalinist Agents. Section2: From Lenin to Stalin Five Year Plan: included : building heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm out put. Developed a command economy, where the gov’t made all economic decisions. Industry: Set high production goals, and pushed workers by giving them bonuses if they succeeded and punishments if they didn’t. This led to an increase in oil, steel, and coal production, but peasants lives didn’t improve and standard of living remained poor. Also there were low wages, and consumer goods were scarce. Agriculture: Under government control, and told peasants that they could either live on state owned farms, or live on collectives. Resistance of collectivization led to the killing of farm animals, destroying of crops and tools, and let to extreme starvation. increased Stalin’s control, and did not improve farm output. Section2: From Lenin to Stalin The Great Purge: Began in 1934 Stalin harbored obsessive fears that rival party leaders were plotting against him. Cracked down on Old Bolsheviks, or party activists from the early days. replaced with young party members that owed absolute loyalty to him. Increased Stalin’s power, and showed the danger of disloyalty. Section2: From Lenin to Stalin Foreign Policy: Organized Communist International or Comintern. aided revolutionary groups to rebel around the world. This made Western Powers suspicous because the USSR encouraged colonized nations to rebel against imperialist nations. Wanted to join the league of Nations to improve relations for trade and diplomacy. Section3: Life in a Totalitarian State Totalitarian State= govt in in which a one party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspects of citizens lives. Use of secret police, censorship, terror, and violence led to fear of the government and obedience to the govt. Used a combination of propaganda and technology: used radios, loud speakers, movies and theaters to preach the success of communism and criticize capitalism. This helped to revive pride of Russia in citizens. Also made atheism the official policy of the state, and replaced religion with communist ideology. Section3: Life in a Totalitarian State Benefits: Free education Free medical care Free day care Inexpensive housing Public transportation Recreation Negatives VS Standard of living still remained LOW Industrial growth led to migration to the cities and caused scarce housing. Section3: Life in a Totalitarian State Women Won equality under law Needed to work because men had such low wages Motherhood= patriotic duty Arts Artwork was controlled by the state Social realism- showed soviet life in a glorified way through art ARTS< BOOKS< MUSIC< FILM= ALL CENSORED Stalin’s total control=NO PERSONAL RIGHTS.