Alfred Russel Wallace and Indonesia Nancy M. Lutz Format/equipment: Scholarly paper with accompanying PowerPoint Abstract: Most people associate the theory of evolution with the work of Charles Darwin. Less well known is that another British naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, independently developed ideas very similar to Darwin’s. Wallace, in fact, sent a draft of his ideas about evolution by natural selection to Darwin before Darwin had published his own theory. Ultimately, the two papers were presented together, although Wallace remained in the shadow of the better-known Darwin. Further, although many people are aware of the importance of the Galapagos Islands to the development of Darwin’s ideas, fewer are aware of the similar importance to Wallace’s ideas of the islands of Indonesia and Malaysia. Biologists and Indonesianists are aware of the ‘Wallace Line’ separating the Asian-influenced western islands of Indonesia from the Australian-influenced eastern islands, but Wallace’s work and significance extend well beyond the ‘Wallace Line’. This paper examines the role of the Indonesian islands, and of Wallace’s experiences there, to the development of his ideas about natural diversity and evolution.