Name ____________________________________________ EVOLUTION and PLANTS Exam Review WORD BANK (Words MAY be used MORE THAN ONCE!!!) SEDIMENTARY OXYGEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS LOWER EVOLUTION FINCHES CARBON DIOXIDE PHLOEM ADAPTATIONS PUNCTUATED FAVORABLE WATER EXTINCT XYLEM GRADUALISM SEXUAL YOUNGER GLUCOSE MUTATIONS CHLOROPLASTS NATURAL SELECTION UNFAVORABLE COMPETITION GENETIC ENGINEERING Date ____________ VARIATION CHLOROPHYLL GRAVITROPISM FITTEST SUNLIGHT LEAVES PHOTOTROPISMS TROPISMS BREEDING LESS BACTERIA ROOTS SPECIATION 1. The process in which a species changes over time is called ______________________________. 2. Fossils can be found in layers of _______________________________ rock. Older and ____________________________ complex fossils are found in the ____________________________ layers. _________________________ and more complex fossils are found in the upper layers. 3. Traits that enable organisms to survive are referred to as _________________________________. 4. ____________________________________ occurs when organisms struggle or fight to survive when resources are limited. 5. Species that use ______________________________ reproduction have more of an advantage for survival because it leads to ____________________________ in the species. 6. A species becomes _______________________ when it cannot adapt to a quickly changing environment. This is most likely due to not a lot of ______________________________ within the species. 7. ______________________ is when evolution occurring slowly through time. _____________________________ equilibrium occurs when there are long periods of stability (no change) with brief periods of rapid change. 8. Darwin’s theory of evolution is called the Theory of _______________________________________. 9. Darwin observed ________________________ when visiting the Galapagos Islands. 10. According to the theory of Natural Selection, organisms with ___________________________ adaptations will survive, reproduce and pass on that trait to offspring. Organisms with __________________________________ adaptations will not survive. 11. According to Survival of the ____________________________________, organisms “most fit” will survive and reproduce. 12. A species will evolve into MANY SPECIES as a result of _____________________________. 13. Variation within a species can be caused by ______________________ reproduction, changes in DNA which are called ___________________________, selective ________________________, and _____________________________________________. 14. Organisms that evolve very quickly are those that reproduce very quickly such as ________________________ and insects. 15. __________________________________ is the process in which LIGHT ENERGY is converted into CHEMICAL ENERGY. 16. _______________________ is the SOURCE OF ENERGY for photosynthesis. _________________________ and _____________________ are the RAW MATERIALS needed for this process to occur. 17. Photosynthesis occurs in cell organelles known as _________________________________. They contain the green pigment ______________________________ which absorbs sunlight. 18. Photosynthesis is important for all organisms because _____________________________ is produced. 19. Plants absorb carbon dioxide and release ______________________________ into the atmosphere. 20. ___________________________ carries WATER up through the plants. ______________________ transports NUTRIENTS throughout the plant. 21. The _____________________________ of a plant ABSORB WATER and ANCHOR the plants into the soil. 22. _________________________________ are where photosynthesis occurs in a plant. 23. The movements of plants in response to stimuli are known as _________________________________. 24. ________________________________ is a plant’s response to light. ____________________________ is a plant’s response to gravity. Use the diagram below which represents a leaf undergoing photosynthesis to answer questions 25 - 28. Sunlight Oxygen Carbon dioxide 25. In the diagram, CIRCLE the source of energy for photosynthesis. 26. In the diagram, draw a BOX around the raw materials. 27. In the diagram, draw a TRIANGLE around the product used for respiration. 28. In the diagram, draw a STAR around the gas released. Glucose Water Use the diagram below which represents a plant to answer questions 29 - 35. 29. IDENTIFY and LABEL the plant structure that absorbs water. 30. IDENTIFY and LABEL the plant structure that contains vascular tissue to transport substances throughout the plant. 31. IDENTIFY and LABEL the plant structure where photosynthesis occurs. 32. Identify the vascular tissue that transports water up from the roots. ___________________________________________ 33. Identify the vascular tissue that transports nutrients (“food”) throughout the plant. ______________________________________ 34. Identify the FOOD produced during photosynthesis. ______________ 35. What is the “food” used for? _______________________________ Use the diagram below of a type of rock containing fossils to answer questions 36 - 38. 36. Identify the type of rock fossils are located in. _________________________________ 37. Identify the layer that contains the OLDEST fossils. Support your answer. (Explain why.) 38. Identify the layer that contains the YOUNGEST fossils. Support your answer. (Explain why.) X Use the diagram below to answer questions 39 - 42. 39. Identify the common ancestor in this phylogenetic tree. _______________ 40. Identify the organism most closely related to BIRDS. _________________________ 41. Identify the organism most closely related to HUMANS. ______________________ 42. Does this diagram represent gradualism or punctuated equilibrium? ________________________________________ Use the diagram below to answer questions 43 and 44. 43. Identify the type of selective breeding represented in the diagram. Support your answer. (Explain why.) 44. Identify and describe the OTHER TYPE of selective breeding.